Indiana Toll Road

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Indiana Toll Road

Indiana East–West Toll Road
Map
Indiana Toll Road highlighted in green
Route information
Maintained by ITRCC
Length156.28 mi[1] (251.51 km)
ExistedAugust 1956 (August 1956)–present
Component
highways
Major junctions
West end
I-90 Toll / Chicago Skyway at Illinois state line
Major intersections
East end

I-80 Toll / I-90 Toll / Ohio Turnpike at Ohio state line
Location
CountryUnited States
StateIndiana
CountiesLake, Porter, LaPorte, St. Joseph, Elkhart, LaGrange, Steuben
Highway system
  • Indiana State Highway System
I-80I-90 I-94

The Indiana Toll Road, officially the Indiana East–West Toll Road,[2] is a tolled freeway that runs for 156.28 miles (251.51 km) east–west across northern Indiana from the Illinois state line to the Ohio state line. It has been advertised as the "Main Street of the Midwest".[3] The entire toll road is designated as part of Interstate 90 (I-90), and the segment from Lake Station east to the Ohio state line (which comprises over 85 percent of the route) is a concurrency with I-80. The toll road is owned by the Indiana Finance Authority and operated by the Indiana Toll Road Concession Company (ITRCC), which is owned by IFM Investors.

Route description

The Indiana Toll Road is part of the Interstate Highway System which runs 156.28 miles (251.51 km) through Indiana connecting the Chicago Skyway to the Ohio Turnpike. The toll road is signed with I-90 for its entire length, as well as I-80 east of Lake Station, after having run concurrently with I-94.

Indiana Toll Road, East Chicago, Indiana, at Kennedy Avenue

Exit points are based on the milepost system, with exits starting at 0 at the Illinois state line and increasing to exit 153 at the Eastpoint toll barrier near the Ohio state line (technically, not an exit, as the only road accessible from there is the Ohio Turnpike, but toll tickets issued at the barrier are marked "Entry 153"). The Toll Road opened in 1956 with sequential exit numbering, which was converted to the current mileage-based scheme in 1981. The original number sequence was amended slightly in 1964 with the opening of the then-Burns Harbor, now Lake Station, exit.

The farthest it gets from the Michigan state line or Lake Michigan is about 10 miles (16 km). At one point in Northern Indiana, in Greenfield Township, LaGrange County, at mile 132, the toll road comes within about 200 yards (180 m), or 0.1 miles (0.16 km), from the Michigan border.[4]

Control cities on guide signs are Chicago and Ohio. Originally, they were "Chicago and West" and "Ohio and East".[5]

History

Longtime version of the Indiana Toll Road's logo, still in use on many guide signs on the Indiana Toll Road and Chicago Skyway
Older version

The Toll Road was publicly financed and constructed during the 1950s. It opened in stages, east to west, in 1956. The first half, from the Ohio line to US 31 outside of Roseland, north of South Bend, opened on August 16,[6] followed by an extension to LaPorte on September 5.[7] The formal dedication ceremony was held on September 17, 1956,[8][9] a day after the highway was opened to US 20 in Gary.[10] The highway was completed on November 15.[9]

The final course of the Toll Road was the northern of four planned alignments.[11] In addition to the east–west toll road, a north–south toll road was planned, roughly along the path of today's I-65, but the plan was dropped after the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 was passed.[8]

Originally, the I-94 designation was applied to the highway west of where the current interchange with I-94 was eventually built, and I-90 followed I-80 to the west along the Borman Expressway as I-94 does now; the completed portion of the Borman Expressway was designated as I-80, I-90, and I-294. The current routing became effective around 1965, to avoid the confusion that had resulted from I-80, I-90, and I-94 all changing roadways there. As a result, a stretch of I-94 is actually farther south than I-90, and I-90 runs the entire length of the Toll Road. I-294 was also cut back to the Tri-State Tollway at that time and thus no longer enters Indiana.

Several interchanges on the Toll Road were constructed between 1980 and 1985 as part of a bond sale in October 1980.[9]

The Indiana Toll Road Commission operated the toll road from its inception until 1981. The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) operated the toll road between 1981 and 2006. On April 1, 1983, the State of Indiana established the Indiana Toll Finance Authority,[9][12] which was renamed the Indiana Transportation Finance Authority in April 1988. It was consolidated with several other state financial agencies and renamed the Indiana Finance Authority in May 2005.[9] From its inception in 1983, the Indiana Finance Authority has maintained ownership of the Toll Road (and other state-owned highways in Indiana), while its operations and maintenance have evolved over time, starting with INDOT until transitioning to the ITRCC in 2006.

Cintra-Macquarie and Major Moves

Upon taking office in 2005, Governor Mitch Daniels began looking for ways to fund a backlog of Indiana highway maintenance and construction.[13] Working with Goldman Sachs, who was reported to have earned some $20 million (equivalent to $28.9 million in 2022[14]) in fees,[15] the state requested bids to lease the Toll Road in exchange for the right to maintain, operate, and collect tolls for the following 75 years.

A consortium made up of the construction firm Cintra of Spain and Macquarie Atlas Roads of Australia, the same firms that had taken over the Chicago Skyway in 2004, submitted the winning bid of $3.8 billion (equivalent to $5.67 billion in 2022[14]).[16] Their bid was $1 billion (equivalent to $1.49 billion in 2022[14]) more than the next highest bid.[13] The deal was completed on June 29, 2006, and the two companies formed the ITRCC to operate the road.

Under the contract, tolls could not be increased until 2010, and Indiana residents using a transponder would not pay higher tolls until 2016. Annual toll increases were limited to the greater of 2%, the rate of inflation, or the rate of increase in the GDP.[17]

Opponents of the proposal filed a lawsuit in St. Joseph County in late April 2006. Following roughly two weeks of arguments, Judge Michael Scopelitis ruled in favor of the State of Indiana, declaring the lawsuit brought by opponents a public lawsuit and therefore requiring the plaintiffs to post a bond of $1.9 billion (equivalent to $2.67 billion in 2022[14]) for the case to proceed. The plaintiffs appealed Scopelitis's ruling to the Indiana Supreme Court, which, on June 20, 2006, in a 4–0 decision, upheld Scopelitis's earlier decision, allowing the lease of the Indiana Toll Road to proceed as scheduled.

The proceeds funded a portion of the extension of I-69 through Southwestern Indiana as well as a number of other highway projects throughout the state. The legislation also authorized the governor to establish a similar public–private partnership agreement for design, construction, and operation of the proposed Southern Indiana Toll Road, which would make up 117 miles (188 km) of the planned 142-mile (229 km) extension of I-69 from Indianapolis to Evansville. On November 9, 2006, Daniels announced the I-69 extension would not be tolled. In lieu of SITR, I-69 was built using $700 million (equivalent to $983 million in 2022[14]) of the Major Moves payout for the section from the I-64/I-164 interchange to Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division.

Some elected officials and candidates for office in the toll road counties expressed concerns that projects in and around Indianapolis would receive too large a share of the lease proceeds to the detriment of northern Indiana.[18] B. Patrick Bauer, a Democratic state representative from South Bend and minority leader in the Indiana House of Representatives, issued a written statement the day before funding was distributed to the counties mocking Major Moves. "Now that the deal is done, the governor and officials in his administration have traveled the state to claim that the sale has financed every major road project scheduled over the next decade", Bauer said. "The fact is that most of these projects already were on course to be completed, without any assistance from the sale of the Toll Road."[19]

On September 15, 2006, funds were distributed to the seven counties through which the Toll Road runs.[19] The list below details each county's total share in the Major Moves money. Some of the funds from each county's distribution were directed to the cities and towns within that county.[20]

In December 2006, the ITRCC announced that a South Bend student, Andrea Hebster, would "receive $5,000[b] toward her educational expenses for being selected as the grand prize winner of the Indiana Toll Road logo design contest". The new ITRCC logo roll out occurred in early 2007.[22]

IFM Partners

The Cintra-Macquarie consortium filed for bankruptcy in September 2014, citing lower than projected traffic volumes and revenues.[23] Then-Democratic US Senator Joe Donnelly urged Republican Governor Mike Pence to return the road to public control. However, Pence instead ordered a tender process to replace the operator and ultimately approved the purchase of the road by IFM Partners, an Australia-based firm.[24]

Tolls

Between the Westpoint barrier toll, near the Illinois state line, and the Portage barrier at milepost 24, tolls are collected in fixed-amounts at exit and entrance ramps.

Between the Portage barrier, east to the Eastpoint barrier toll, near the Ohio state line, it is operated as a closed ticket system toll road, where one receives a ticket upon entering and pays a pre-calculated amount based on distance traveled when exiting. As of July 2020, standard passenger cars are charged a toll of $9.23 for E-ZPass users and $9.20 for cash users along the section from Portage to Eastpoint, with an extra $2.81 for E-ZPass users and $2.80 for cash users at the Westpoint barrier.[25]

Originally, the entire toll road was on a closed ticket system, with Westpoint at current exit 5, roughly under the East 141st Street overpass. A computer system switchover, scheduled for June 11, 1984, but not performed until July 14, 1986, replaced punch card tickets with magnetically encoded ones for the section from mile 24 eastward and instituted cash collection for the remainder of the highway.[26] Effective June 25, 2007, the Toll Road began electronic toll collection with the i-Zoom system. i-Zoom was fully compatible with the E-ZPass and I-Pass electronic toll collection systems. Indiana became the 12th state to use the E-ZPass system.

The i-Zoom brand name was retired starting in September 2012 to take advantage of the already-existing E-ZPass brand and to avert confusion with the upcoming Ohio River Bridges Project in the Louisville metropolitan area, which is managed by the Louisville–Southern Indiana Bridge Authority and uses the E-ZPass system.[27]

Service areas

Like all other toll highways built in the 1950s, the Toll Road has had service areas (called travel plazas[28]) since its opening. Originally, there were eight pairs of travel plazas located approximately every 18 miles (29 km). Of these, five featured sit-down restaurants operated by Hosts International[29] while the other three had only snack bars. Each travel plaza was named after a prominent Indiana native or resident.[30] Gasoline and other auto services were available at all travel plazas. Originally, various oil companies including Standard, Sinclair, Pure, Gulf, Texaco, and Citgo operated each of the travel plazas. Later, Standard Oil, later Amoco and now BP, assumed operations at all travel plazas. Later, BP at the travel plazas was replaced by Mobil, then Phillips 66, and currently Sunoco.

The westernmost snack bar at milepost 37.5 remained open until the mid-70s and is now used as a "Truck Only Parking" rest area[28] with no facilities. The other two at mileposts 72.9 and 108 were closed in 1972, although the one at 108 was also converted into a truck parking area without facilities. All were demolished except for one, the former Benjamin Harrison snack bar on the eastbound side at milepost 72.9. It presently serves as a state police station and has no public facilities. The restaurant interiors were remodeled into short-order cafeterias in the late 1970s when Gladieux Food Services took over operations[31][32] and were remodeled again for fast food service 1984–1985.[33]

In June 2015, Ken Daley, the new CEO of the ITRCC, announced that all of the original travel plazas built in 1955 would be demolished and replaced within the next five years.[34]

As of October 2015, the Booth Tarkington service area, the easternmost in Indiana, was permanently closed.

In July 2017, the Gene S. Porter (eastbound) and Ernie Pyle (westbound) service plazas opened in Howe. Both have Sunoco gas stations.

As of July 2020, there are eight restored travel plaza rest stops on the ITR, four eastbound and four westbound, situated across the divided highway from each other. They comprise the Howe Travel Plaza at mile marker 126, the Elkhart Travel Plaza at mile marker 90, the Rolling Prairie Travel Plaza at mile marker 56, and the Portage Travel Plaza at mile marker 22. They offer popular restaurant choices, convenience stores, snack kiosks, and gift shops. All travel plazas have modern restrooms, telephones, ATMs, vending, lottery machines, and electric vehicle charging stations.

Future

Recently finished six-lane section at US 12/US 20 in Gary in 2008

Part of the agreement to privatize operations of the Toll Road is to invest $600 million in the facility during the first nine years of the lease. This is above and beyond the $3.8 billion being invested by the State of Indiana in Major Moves projects. More than $300 million has already been invested in improving the Toll Road. Some examples include the third-lane expansion project at $250 million, electronic toll collection (i-Zoom) at $40 million, and toll plaza expansions (mileposts 1, 23, and 156) at $9 million total.

Included in the plans is adding a third lane in each direction in the most congested area of the Toll Road: from milepost 10–15.5. The third-lane expansion was completed in December 2011. The 10-year Bridge Capital Improvement plan is also underway, which will repair and rehabilitate nearly every structure on the ITR over the next 10 years. The lease agreement also requires ITRCC to maintain or improve the condition of the Toll Road to standards set forth by state and federal law.

Exit list

CountyLocationmi[35]kmOld exitNew exitDestinationsNotes
LakeHammond0.000.00


I-90 Toll west / Chicago Skyway west – Chicago
Continuation into Illinois
0.080.1300 US 12 / US 20 / US 41 / LMCT (Indianapolis Boulevard) – ChicagoWestbound exit and eastbound entrance
1.061.71Westpoint Toll Barrier
2.974.783
SR 912 east (Cline Avenue)
Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; opened October 27, 1986, with completion of SR 912[36]
4.186.7315 US 41 (Calumet Avenue) – Hammond
Gary9.5215.3210 US 12 / SR 912 / LMCT (Cline Avenue) – GaryOpened October 1, 1985[37]
13.6922.03214AGrant StreetFormerly Buchanan St; previously exit 13[38][39] rest
14.5423.4014B SR 53 (Broadway) – Gary WorksOpened 1985;[40][41] previously Exit 15;[38][39] first single-point urban interchange built in Indiana
16.9027.20317
I-65 south / US 12 / US 20 / LMCT (Dunes Highway) – Indianapolis
I-65 exit 262; northern terminus of I-65
Lake Station20.6833.28421
I-80 west / I-94 / US 6 / SR 51 – Detroit, Chicago, Des Moines, Lake Station
Western end of I-80 concurrency; opened 1964[9]
PorterPortage23.4637.7623Willowcreek RoadOpened October 1, 1985[37]
23.9538.54Portage Toll Barrier
Western end of ticket system
Chesterton30.6649.34531 SR 49 – Chesterton, ValparaisoServes Indiana Dunes National Park and Indiana Dunes State Park
LaPorteNew Durham Township38.9162.62639 US 421 – Michigan City, Westville
Center Township48.8078.54749 SR 39 – La Porte
St. JosephSouth Bend72.29116.3472 US 31 – South Bend, Plymouth, NilesOpened October 27, 1980;[9][42] connection to Nimtz Parkway opened September 3, 1993[43]
76.46123.05877 SR 933 – South BendServes University of Notre Dame
Harris Township82.64133.0083 SR 331 (Capital Avenue) – MishawakaOpened November 17, 1982[44][45]
ElkhartElkhart91.55147.34992 SR 19 – Elkhart
95.98154.4696 CR 17 – ElkhartTo M-217; interchange opened October 9, 1997[46]
Bristol101.12162.74101 SR 15 – Bristol, GoshenOpened August 15, 1983[47]
York Township107.21172.5410107
US 131 north – Constantine

SR 13 south – Middlebury
Southern terminus of US 131; signed northern terminus of SR 13
LaGrangeHowe120.23193.4911121 SR 9 – Howe, LaGrange, Sturgis
SteubenFremont143.53230.9912144
I-69 / SR 120 / SR 127 south – Angola, Fort Wayne, Lansing
I-69 exit 356; serves Pokagon State Park
York Township152.50245.42Eastpoint Toll Barrier
Eastern end of ticket system
156.28251.51




I-80 Toll east / I-90 Toll east / Ohio Turnpike east – Toledo
Continuation into Ohio
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Total distribution amount would have been $40 million (equivalent to $56.1 million in 2022[14]) if LaPorte County had joined the Northwest Indiana Regional Development Authority by September 15, 2006. Since it did not,[21] the total distribution amount was $25 million (equivalent to $35.1 million in 2022[14]).[20]
  2. ^ Equivalent to $7,018 in 2022.[14]

References

  1. ^ Adderly, Kevin (February 5, 2019). "Table 1: Main Routes of the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways as of December 31, 2018". Route Log and Finder List. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  2. ^ Indiana General Assembly (May 4, 2006). "Title 105, Article 14: Toll Roads" (PDF). Indiana Administrative Code. Office of Code Revision Indiana Legislative Services Agency. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
  3. ^ Indiana Toll Road Commission (1962). You're Never Alone on the Indiana Toll Road (Brochure). Indiana Toll Road Commission. Main Street of the Midwest
    Rand McNally and Company (1979). Indiana Toll Road: "Main Street of the Midwest" (Map) (1979-1980 ed.). [c. 1:2,000,000]. South Bend: Indiana Toll Road Commission. LCCN 85695997.
    Indiana Department of Transportation (n.d.). Indiana Toll Road: "Main Street of the Midwest" (PDF) (Map). Scale not given. Indianapolis: Indiana Department of Transportation. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  4. ^ United States Geological Survey (1960). Bronson South, MI–IN (Topographic map). 1:24,000. 7.5 Minute Series. Reston, Virginia: United States Geological Survey. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
  5. ^ "Throwback Thursday: The 1956 Opening of the Indiana Toll Road, the Highway to the Future". South Bend Tribune. June 28, 2018. Photograph 36 of 44. Retrieved June 28, 2018. On Sept. 5, 1956, an employee removes a covering on a directional sign on the soon-to-open Indiana Toll Road.
  6. ^ Ohio Turnpike Commission (August 21, 1956). "Resolution No. 52-1956 Extending Felicitations and Appreciative Thanks to the Indiana Toll Road Commission" (PDF). Retrieved January 16, 2024.
  7. ^ "REMOVE SIGN COVERS TO OPEN TOLL ROAD TO LAPORTE". The South Bend Tribune. 1956-09-05. p. 19. Retrieved 2024-01-16.
  8. ^ a b Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named sbt
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Indiana Department of Transportation (1991). Indiana Toll Road: A Brief History (Brochure). Indiana Department of Transportation. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
  10. ^ "Toll Road Dedicated By Craig". The Times. 1956-09-17. p. 1. Retrieved 2024-01-16.
  11. ^ Ripple, David Alan; Joint Highway Research Project; Indiana State Highway Commission (1975). History of the Interstate Highway in Indiana: Final Report. West Lafayette, Indiana: Joint Highway Research Project. Figure 108: Alternative Indiana Toll Road Routes. OCLC 70935546. Archived from the original on April 14, 2004. Retrieved April 25, 2008.
  12. ^ Indiana General Assembly. "Title 8, Article 9.5, Chapter 8". Indiana Administrative Code. Office of Code Revision Indiana Legislative Services Agency. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
  13. ^ a b Puentes, Robert (October 3, 2014). "The Indiana Toll Road: How Did a Good Deal Go Bad?". Forbes. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Johnston, Louis; Williamson, Samuel H. (2023). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved December 19, 2023. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
  15. ^ Knight, Jerry (March 20, 2006). "Infrastructure: A Road to Riches?". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 16, 2011.
  16. ^ Schulman, Daniel (January 1, 2007). "The Highwaymen". Mother Jones. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
  17. ^ Gilmour, John B. (November 2012). "The Indiana Toll Road Lease as an Intergenerational Cash Transfer". Public Administration Review. 72 (6): 861–862. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2012.02589.x.
  18. ^ Ruthhart, Bill (February 6, 2006). "Toll Road Counties Object". The Indianapolis Star. pp. B1, B5. ISSN 1930-2533. Retrieved March 12, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  19. ^ a b c d "Major Moves Money on the Move, Toll Road Checks in the Mail: Area Counties Get Their Millions Today". The Journal Gazette. Fort Wayne, Indiana. September 15, 2006.[full citation needed]
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Office of Indiana Auditor of State (September 15, 2006). Major Moves Construction Fund Distribution (PDF). Office of Indiana Auditor of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2006.
  21. ^ "Day-by-Day Chronology". LaPorte Herald Argus. December 30, 2006. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
  22. ^ Indiana Toll Road Concession Company (December 15, 2006). "Indiana Toll Road Awards Local Student $5,000 for Educational Expenses" (PDF) (Press release). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 23, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
  23. ^ Bathon, Michael (September 22, 2014). "Indiana Toll Road Seeks Bankruptcy as Traffic Declines". Bloomberg. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
  24. ^ "Trump's $1 Trillion Infrastructure Plan Is Actually Pence's—and It's All About Privatization". Newsweek. September 4, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  25. ^ "Travel Information". Indiana Toll Road Concession Company. Retrieved October 17, 2020.
  26. ^ Lipo, Frank (July 16, 1986). "Computer-run Collection Effort Finally Arrives at Toll Road". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved June 15, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  27. ^ "E-ZPass Replaces 'i-Zoom' Brand". South Bend Tribune. September 10, 2012. p. A3. OCLC 8793233. Retrieved March 23, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  28. ^ a b Northern Indiana Tourism Development Commission; Indiana Department of Transportation: Toll Road District. "Northern Indiana Area Map" (PDF). Northern Indiana Tourism Development Commission; Indiana Department of Transportation Toll Road District. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 30, 2007. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
  29. ^ Shnay, Jerry (August 4, 1968). "Firm Supplies 'Hosts' with Tons of Food". Chicago Tribune (Indiana ed.). § 10, p. 9. ISSN 1085-6706. Retrieved March 23, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  30. ^ "The People Behind the Names". South Bend Tribune. January 22, 2006. p. A9. OCLC 8793233. Retrieved March 23, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  31. ^ "Indiana Toll Road Pact Awarded to Gladieux". The Blade. Toledo, Ohio. December 27, 1974. p. 17. OCLC 12962717.
  32. ^ "Change Restaurant Concession Rights Along Toll Road". Times-Union. Warsaw, Indiana. United Press International. December 21, 1974. p. 2.
  33. ^ Dodson, Paul (May 22, 1985). "Fast Food Restaurants a Success on Toll Road". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved June 15, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  34. ^ "Indiana Toll Road Rest Stops to Be Demolished, Rebuilt". The Daily Journal. Franklin, Indiana. June 20–21, 2016. p. A6. Retrieved March 23, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  35. ^ Indiana Department of Transportation (2004). "Reference Post Book" (PDF). Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Department of Transportation. I-90. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2011. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
  36. ^ "Mutz Dedicates Roadway, Site of '82 Span Collapse". Associated Press. October 28, 1986. Retrieved June 15, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  37. ^ a b Dodson, Paul (September 25, 1985). "Toll Road to Open 2 Entrances". South Bend Tribune. p. A9. Retrieved June 15, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  38. ^ a b Indiana Department of Transportation (2002). Indiana Transportation Map (Map). 1:560,000. Indianapolis: Indiana Department of Transportation. OCLC 51445799.
  39. ^ a b Indiana Department of Transportation (2003). Indiana Transportation Map (Map). 1:560,000. Indianapolis: Indiana Department of Transportation. OCLC 55201262.
  40. ^ Indiana Department of Highways (1985). Indiana State Highway System (Map). Scale not given. Indianapolis: Indiana Department of Highways. Retrieved May 9, 2019 – via Indiana State Library.
  41. ^ Indiana Department of Highways (1987). Indiana State Highway System (Map). Scale not given. Indianapolis: Indiana Department of Highways. Retrieved May 9, 2019 – via Indiana State Library.
  42. ^ Wensits, James (October 27, 1980). "Toll Road Plaza Opened". South Bend Tribune. p. 23. OCLC 8793233 – via Newspapers.com.
  43. ^ "Access Roads Open for Airport 2010 Development Work". South Bend Tribune. September 3, 1993. p. B4. OCLC 8793233 – via Newspapers.com.
  44. ^ Johnson, Judy L. (November 17, 1982). "Interchange: Tourism Aid". South Bend Tribune. p. 1. OCLC 8793233 – via Newspapers.com.
  45. ^ "Throwback Thursday: The 1956 Opening of the Indiana Toll Road, the Highway to the Future". South Bend Tribune. June 28, 2018. Photograph 44 of 44. Retrieved June 28, 2018. In November 1982, Mishawaka Mayor Maggie Prickett is the first motorist to drive onto the Indiana Toll Road at the newly constructed Mishawaka interchange.
  46. ^ Ferak, John (October 10, 1997). "Last Link on Area Road Loop Forged: Toll Interchange Opens to East Elkhart". South Bend Tribune. p. C1. OCLC 8793233 – via Newspapers.com.
  47. ^ Meyer, Bernie (August 16, 1983). "Orr Attends Opening of Interchange". South Bend Tribune. p. IN-3. OCLC 8793233 – via Newspapers.com.

External links


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