Indiana State Road 912

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State Road 912

Cline Avenue
Map
Map of northwest Indiana with SR 912 in red
Route information
Maintained by INDOT
Length11.69 mi[1] (18.81 km)
Major junctions
West end
I-90 Toll / Indiana Toll Road in Hammond
Major intersections
South endRidge Road in Griffith
Location
CountryUnited States
StateIndiana
CountiesLake
Highway system
  • Indiana State Highway System
SR 827 SR 930

State Road 912 (SR 912), known along its entire length as Cline Avenue, is a freeway north of the combined Interstate 80/I-94/U.S. Route 6 (I-80/I-94/US 6, Borman Expressway), and a local access road serving Griffith south of the Borman. The portion of Cline Avenue marked as SR 912 is 11.69 miles (18.81 km) long.

On April 15, 1982, part of a ramp under construction collapsed during concrete pouring operations near the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal, killing fourteen highway workers and injuring eighteen more. In 1987, the state designated the route between US 12 and the Indiana Toll Road as the Highway Construction Workers Memorial Highway.

From December 28, 2009 to December 23, 2020 the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) closed the elevated bridge portion of Cline Avenue between Calumet and Michigan Avenues, a distance of nearly 3.5 miles (5.6 km). Corrosion had severely weakened most elements of the bridge, including the bridge piers, concrete, beams and cables.[2] The bridge was demolished and replaced with a toll crossing.[3][4] Similar cases of corrosion have been identified in other bridges across the country.[5]

Route description

The freeway runs east from exit 3 of the Indiana Toll Road and then meeting US 41 after that. At this point, the road then crosses a toll bridge above the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal. After crossing the bridge, the portion ahead serves several of the steel mills (many now owned by Cleveland-Cliffs) and the casino in East Chicago. It also serves the Gary/Chicago International Airport. Continuing south, it then meets the Indiana Toll Road for the second time, this time at exit 10 of the Toll Road. The north-south portion between US 20 and the Borman Expressway (I-80/I-94/US 6) and follows the border between Gary and Hammond, Indiana.

South of the Borman Expressway, Cline Avenue downgrades into a four-lane divided highway. SR 912 extends south 1 mile (1.6 km) to Ridge Road (Business US 6).

History

Before the construction of the expressway, portions of Truck Route 912 were on Kennedy Avenue. Some 5.7 miles (9.2 km) of new freeway from the Toll Road to Chicago Avenue was constructed at a cost of $250 million (1982, $551 million in 2008).[6] Most of the expressway portion followed the path of the former Pennsylvania Railroad main line from Chicago to Pittsburgh via Fort Wayne, rationalized by Conrail onto the parallel former New York Central main line.

Ramp collapse

On April 15, 1982, 14 workers were killed and 18 injured when falsework beneath a ramp failed during a concrete pour.[7] At 10:40 a.m., Unit 4 (one of the bridge sections), collapsed, destroying the scaffold stairway and stranding workers on the remaining sections above. Workers on Unit 4 were crushed to death when the section flipped and landed upside-down while descending due to tension in the cables.[6]

Surviving construction workers brought in a cherry picker to rescue the remaining workers stranded on the ramp, but five minutes after the initial collapse, Unit 5, the neighboring section, also collapsed. Twelve workers in total were killed instantly; a 13th died two weeks after the collapse, and the 14th worker died of injuries suffered during the collapse two years later.[8] The accident remains Indiana's deadliest industrial or construction accident.[6]

Investigators from the National Bureau of Standards for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) discovered several errors that caused the collapse of the bridge section. The most likely cause of the collapse was "the cracking of a concrete pad supporting a leg of the shoring towers". The failure of the concrete pad, built too thinly, led to another finding; one-inch (2.5 cm) bolts that were supposed to connect key stringers to cross-beams instead were replaced with frictional clips, but investigators did not find any documentation that supported this substitution. Investigators could not locate any engineering calculations supporting the pads as designed; worse, the pads were built substandard to the undocumented design.[6]

Lawsuits against companies involved in building the ramp were settled out of court, as no single party could be found to explain the discrepancies. The bridge finally opened in 1986. In 1987, the state designated the route between US 12 and the Indiana Toll Road as the "Highway Construction Workers Memorial Highway," in their memory.[6][9]

Sniper investigation

During the middle of 2006, numerous drivers reported possible attacks by a sniper on the eastern portion of Cline Avenue. Drivers reported having their windows and windshields shattered by unknown projectiles. Investigators, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, suspected an assailant armed with a slingshot or a BB gun was shooting out windows. Others suspected the broken windows were due to flying gravel and abnormally warm temperatures. The shootings were not related to an earlier July 25 shooting death of a motorist on I-65 south of Indianapolis. No arrests were ever made in the case, and the shootings ended around the beginning of the school year.[10]

Bridge closure and replacement

Cline Avenue Bridge
Carries2 lanes of SR 912 (Cline Avenue)
CrossesIndiana Harbor and Ship Canal
LocaleEast Chicago, Indiana
Maintained byUnited Bridge Partners
Characteristics
DesignSegmental bridge
Materialconcrete
Total length1.7 miles (2.7 km)
Width46 feet (14 m)
History
Construction startJune 2017; 7 years ago (2017-06)
OpenedDecember 23, 2020; 3 years ago (2020-12-23)
Statistics
TollE-ZPass/I-Pass:[11]
  • $2.50 (2-axles)
  • $6.50 (3 or 4-axles)
  • $10.50 (5-axles)

Pay by plate:[11]

  • $5.50 (2-axles)
  • $9.50 (3 or 4-axles)
  • $13.50 (5-axles)

On November 13, 2009, the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) closed the bridge portion over the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (the portions of the road between exits 1 and 5A) to all traffic after consultants released details of an inspection on the bridge, citing safety concerns equivalent to the August 2007 I-35W bridge collapse in Minneapolis.[12]

The bridge was originally supposed to be replaced within three years, but then INDOT claimed the $90 million expense for a new bridge for 30,000 vehicles per day was not justifiable. Instead, INDOT focused on upgrading the roadways being used as a detour around the bridge to handle the added traffic.[5] On April 15, 2010, INDOT announced its plan to demolish the bridge and reroute traffic via Riley and Dickey roads.[13]

On November 2, 2010, INDOT reopened the westbound lanes of SR 912 from Riley Road to the Indiana Toll Road, while awaiting results of an environmental impact study to determine if the eastbound lanes should be reopened. While the ramp from westbound Riley Road to SR 912 reopened, crews demolished the eastbound ramp from SR 912 to Riley Road as it was found to be structurally unsound.[14]

Demolition of the bridge continued into 2012 and was completed in January 2013. The span over the Indiana Harbor Ship Channel was removed by conventional demolition methods, while the spans over land were removed with explosives. On January 8, 2013, the bridge demolition was completed.[15]

On March 30, 2015, a vehicle was following outdated GPS data and apparently drove around multiple warning signs and barriers, driving off the closed bridge and resulting in the death of the vehicle's passenger.[16][17]

Discussion on replacing the span continued, and in 2012, INDOT agreed to replace the span with a private toll bridge.[18] The state sought a private partnership in a joint venture with United Bridge Partners who is joined by FIGG Bridge Companies, Lane Construction Corp. and American Infrastructure MLP funds.[4] Construction of the bridge was expected to begin in early 2014 and take approximately 2 12 years to complete. The cost of the bridge is expected to be $150–250 million to complete depending on whether steel beams from the original structure can be reused. The FIGG Group, having won awards for its bridge designs, will be incorporating unique design features into the new bridge, including LED lighting on the concrete piers, making it a gateway attraction. Toll schedules are not yet set but are expected to be anywhere from $2.50 to $3.50 for cars.[19][20]

However, the project's groundbreaking construction occurred in June 2017 instead of 2014.[21] Not only that, The Figg Group later revised the bridge's completion year to 2019.[22]

On April 16, 2020, the bridge construction was almost done but Randy Palmateer, business manager for Northwestern Indiana Building and Construction Trades Council said, "The job is shut down." This shutdown is caused by management issues, and the end of the project was delayed until further notice. The FIGG Bridge group did not respond to the workers that were being laid off and the temporary cancellation of the bridge construction.[23] As a result of management issues, the owner of the bridge, Cline Avenue Bridge LLC, had cut ties with FIGG Bridge Builders.[24]

The bridge owners took legal action against the Great American Insurance Group for $105 million in August 2020.[24]

On December 23, 2020, a two-lane toll bridge reopened to traffic. The bridge was initially free until January 31, 2021. After that, toll collections began at a discount; regular price was implemented starting in the beginning of March.[3][11][25]

Exit list

The entire highway is in Lake County.

Locationmi[1]kmExitDestinationsNotes
Hammond0.000.00


I-90 Toll west / Indiana Toll Road west – Chicago
Western terminus of SR 912; I-90 / Toll Road exit 3
0.81–
1.09
1.30–
1.75
US 41 (Calumet Avenue)
East Chicago2.463.96Riley RoadWestbound entrance only
Cline Avenue Bridge (toll; E-ZPass or pay-by-plate)
4.046.505ACleveland-Cliffs Plant 1, Michigan Avenue
4.096.58Block AvenueSouthbound entrance only
4.33–
4.48
6.97–
7.21
5BCleveland-Cliffs Plant 2Southbound exit signed Jeorse Park, Pastrick Marina
5CJeorse Park, Pastrick Marina – Ameristar CasinoNo southbound exit
Gary5.26–
5.62
8.47–
9.04
6A
US 12 west (Columbus Drive) / SR 312 west (Chicago Avenue) / Buffington Harbor Drive
No southbound entrance; northbound exit to Buffington Harbor Drive only
5.629.046BAirport RoadSouthbound exit; formerly eastbound US 12
5.84–
5.94
9.40–
9.56
6
US 12 west / LMCT (Columbus Drive) / Airport Road
Northern end of US 12 concurrency; southbound entrance and northbound exit
6.5310.517A
SR 312 west (Chicago Avenue)
Northbound exit and southbound entrance
6.9311.157BGary Avenue

I-90 / Indiana Toll Road to Chicago Skyway
Signed as exit 7 southbound; I-90 exit 10
HammondGary
city line
7.88–
8.26
12.68–
13.29
8
US 12 east / US 20 / LMCT (Michigan Street / 5th Avenue) – Gary, Michigan City, South Bend
Southern end of US 12 concurrency; signed as exits 8A (west) and 8B (east)
8.99–
9.32
14.47–
15.00
9169th Street, 15th Avenue
10.32–
10.48
16.61–
16.87
10
I-80 / I-94 / US 6 (Borman Expressway) to I-65 – Chicago, Detroit
Signed as exits 10A (west) and 10B (east); I-80/I-94 exit 5
Southern end of freeway section
HighlandGriffith
town line
11.6918.81Ridge RoadSouthern terminus of SR 912; no trucks over 8 short tons (7.3 t) allowed westbound
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Staff (2004). Reference Post Book (PDF). Indianapolis: Indiana Department of Transportation. S-912. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
  2. ^ Fegaras, Angie (December 28, 2009). "INDOT Recommends Permanent Closure of SR 912 (Cline Avenue) Bridge" (Press release). Indiana Department of Transportation. Retrieved January 3, 2010.
  3. ^ a b Steele, Andrew (December 23, 2020). "New Cline Avenue Bridge opens today". nwitimes.com. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  4. ^ a b Puente, Michael (May 16, 2012). "Cline Avenue Bridge to Be Rebuilt as Toll Road". Chicago: WBEZ-FM. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
  5. ^ a b Benman, Keith (December 29, 2009). "Cline Avenue Bridge Will Be Demolished". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Munster, IN. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d e Davich, Jerry (April 1, 2007). "It Was Chaos, Mass Chaos" (PDF). Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 14, 2009.
  7. ^ Unknown (April 16, 1982). "Bridge Ramp Falls, Kills 12 at E. Chicago; 18 are injured". The Indianapolis Star. Archived from the original on August 20, 2008. Retrieved April 16, 2008.
  8. ^ Bannon, Timothy; Krause, Ruth Ann (April 16, 1982). "A Times Special Report: The bridge collapse". The Times of Northwest Indiana.
  9. ^ Indiana Department of Transportation (2010). "Indiana Memorial Highways and Bridges". Indianapolis: Indiana Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  10. ^ Maxwell, Tonya & Huppke, Rex W. (August 8, 2006). "Even Weather a Suspect in Indiana 'Sniper' case". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 2, 2008.
  11. ^ a b c "TOLLING". Cline Avenue Bridge. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
  12. ^ Bingham, Joshua (November 13, 2009). "SR 912 (Cline Avenue) Bridge Closed to All Traffic" (Press release). Indiana Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 13, 2009.
  13. ^ Tweh, Bowdeya & Kwiatkowski, Marisa (April 16, 2010). "Cline Avenue Bridge won't be rebuilt: Proposal would combine Dickey, Riley Roads Across Canal and Back to Cline". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Munster, IN. Retrieved April 16, 2010.
  14. ^ Benman, Keith (November 2, 2010). "Portion of Cline Avenue Reopens in One Direction". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Munster, IN. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
  15. ^ Benman, Keith (January 9, 2013). "End of the Road for Cline Avenue Bridge". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Munster, IN. Retrieved January 27, 2013.
  16. ^ Napoleon, Carrie (March 30, 2015). "Cops: Woman Dies in Crash After Husband Drives Car off Closed Bridge". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
  17. ^ Matyszczyk, Chris (March 30, 2015). "Driver Follows GPS off Disused Bridge, and Wife Dies, Police Say". CNET. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
  18. ^ Benman, Keith (August 19, 2012). "Cline Bridge Turnover Deadline Looms". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Munster, IN. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  19. ^ Benman, Keith (May 8, 2013). "Cline Avenue Bridge Building Preparations Begin". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Munster, IN. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
  20. ^ Benman, Keith (October 16, 2013). "Cline Ave Bridge Construction Could Start Next Year". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Munster, IN. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
  21. ^ "BACKGROUND". Cline Avenue Bridge. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
  22. ^ Steele, Andrew (June 14, 2017). "New Cline Avenue Bridge set to open in 2019". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  23. ^ Steele, Andrew (April 16, 2020). "Cline Avenue Bridge project shut down, workers laid off, union official says". NWI Times. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  24. ^ a b Steele, Andrew. "Insurer hit with $105M lawsuit over Cline Avenue Bridge". nwitimes.com. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  25. ^ Avila, Larry (December 16, 2020). "Cline Avenue Bridge will reopen to traffic following Dec. 23 ribbon cutting". Northwest Indiana Business Magazine. Retrieved December 19, 2020.

External links