2003 Iowa highway transfer of jurisdiction

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Iowa Primary Highway System
System information
NotesPrimary highways in Iowa are generally state-maintained.
Highway names
InterstatesInterstate X (I-X)
US HighwaysU.S. Highway X (US X)
StateHighway X (IA X or Iowa X)
System links

On July 1, 2003, the Iowa Department of Transportation transferred control of more than 700 miles (1,100 km) of highway to county and local governments in order to save money and to increase operational efficiency. Most of the highways turned over were short spurs connecting small, rural communities and state parks to the highway system.[1]

Background

Starting in 1979, staff members with the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) along with county and municipal officials began to reclassify every mile of Iowa's 113,000-mile (182,000 km) public road system. These classification boards found that on the 10,000 highway miles (16,000 km) in the primary system, which comprises Interstate Highways, U.S. Highways, and state highways, nearly 1,000 miles (1,600 km) were minor highways that primarily served local traffic. Conversely, they found 400 miles (640 km) of major highways that were on the secondary system, which is made up of all rural roads not on the primary highway system.[2] At the time, the Iowa Code provided a mechanism for the transfer of jurisdiction of roads within the state. The two sides would meet and if it was deemed that the road in question needed repairs, the relinquishing body would either make repairs or pay the accepting body the money needed to repair the roadway.[3]

Most of the time, the DOT was able to come to an agreement with the county board of supervisors as 600 miles (970 km) of Iowa roads changed hands in the early 1980s. Some counties and the state could never come to an agreement, as was the case in Johnson County regarding Iowa Highway 979 (Iowa 979). The DOT wanted Johnson County to take over maintenance of the 6-mile-long (9.7 km) road and offered $160,000 to repair the road (equivalent to $380,000 in 2022[4]), while the county wanted the state to take over another road. Both sides reached an impasse.[5] Ultimately, Iowa 979 stayed under DOT control. During the 1990s, Iowa experienced a boom in highway construction bolstered by state appropriations from the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995. New four-lane highways were built all across the state, either by twinning an existing roadway or building new alignments in proximity to the old roads. After opening the new roads, these short segments often stayed on the primary highway system despite not serving an arterial purpose.

In 2002, the Road Use Tax Fund Committee, a mix of city, county, and state transportation officials, met to review and recommend changes to Iowa's public road system. The report was necessitated by increasing costs to maintain the highway system and a level of funding that was not keeping up with the rising costs. The committee identified over 700 miles (1,100 km) of state highways which could be turned over to local jurisdictions.[6] Not wanting to repeat the impasses of the 1980s, the DOT got help from state legislature. The general assembly passed SF 451, which gave the DOT a one-time exemption from §306.8, which required the DOT to otherwise compensate a county for giving control of a road. Any roads identified by the Road Use Tax Fund Committee for which a transfer agreement pursuant to §306.8 had not been reached prior to July 1, 2003, would be summarily given to the respective counties without compensation. Even more, counties could not figure any roads offloaded to counties through this mechanism into the calculations for determining their road maintenance budgets for ten years.[7]

Some counties were proactive with negotiating with the state. Early in 2003, it was not clear to county officials just how much money would be given to the counties for accepting roads from the state. This made the counties more amenable to accepting money for highways than in previous years. Taylor County officials negotiated a $4.7 million transfer (equivalent to $7.2 million in 2022[4]) of Iowa 49 with the DOT, while Adams County officials did not. The DOT paid out $35 million (equivalent to $53.6 million in 2022[4]) to counties before the July 1, 2003, deadline.[8]

Routes affected

Number Length (mi)[9][a] Length (km) Southern or western terminus Northern or eastern terminus Formed Removed Notes
US 6 14.842 23.886 I-80 near Dexter US 169 in Adel 01931-06-081931 current Rerouted over I-80 and US 169
Iowa 15 4.655 7.491 Route 15 south of Milton Iowa 2 at Milton 01969-01-011969 02003-07-012003
Iowa 36 2.983 4.801 Wall Lake US 71 / Iowa 175 at Wall Lake 01920-07-011920 02003-07-012003
Iowa 40 3.524 5.671 Allerton Iowa 2 near Corydon 01926-07-011926 02003-07-012003
Iowa 41 1.827 2.940 Malvern US 34 near Malvern 01920-07-011920 02003-07-012003
Iowa 45 1.324 2.131 Manilla Iowa 141 near Manilla 01920-07-011920 02003-07-012003
Iowa 49 27.228 43.819 Iowa 2 at Bedford US 34 near Lenox 01920-07-011920 02003-07-012003
Iowa 50 7.135 11.483 US 169 near Fort Dodge Lehigh 01920-07-011920 02003-07-012003
Iowa 55 4.506 7.252 Seymour Iowa 2 east of Promise City 01934-01-011934 02003-07-012003
Iowa 66 7.011 11.283 Iowa 2 near Benton Diagonal 02003-07-012003
Iowa 68 1.933 3.111 Melrose US 34 near Melrose 02003-07-012003
Iowa 77 2.685 4.321 Iowa 92 near Keota Keota 02003-07-012003
Iowa 79 5.637 9.072 Geode State Park US 34 in Middletown 01980-07-011980 02003-07-012003
Iowa 82 3.773 6.072 Blairsburg US 30 near Blairsburg 01920-07-011920 02003-07-012003
Iowa 83 14.562 23.435 Iowa 191 at Neola US 59 in Avoca Remainder of route unchanged
Iowa 91 4.643 7.472 Iowa 9 near Little Rock MN 91 near Ellsworth, Minn. 01980-07-011980 02003-07-012003
Iowa 94 11.168 17.973 Palo US 151 Business in Cedar Rapids 01966-01-011966 02003-07-012003
Iowa 97 1.532 2.466 Russell US 34 near Russell 02003-07-012003
Iowa 99 33.232 53.482 US 34 in Burlington US 61in Wapello 01931-01-011931 02003-07-012003
Iowa 102 15.401 24.786 Iowa 163 at Pella New Sharon city limits 01980-07-011980 02003-07-012003 Section within New Sharon limits remains
Iowa 103 27.579 44.384 US 218 / Iowa 27 near West Point US 61 / Iowa 2 in Fort Madison 02003-07-012003
Iowa 107 27.579 44.384 Iowa 3 near Alexander US 18 in Clear Lake 01920-07-011920 02011-06-302011 Portions within Meservey and Thornton remained
Iowa 109 1.268 2.041 Oxford US 6 near Oxford 02003-07-012003
Iowa 113 1.187 1.910 Iowa 64 near Preston Spragueville 01938-01-011938 02003-07-012003 Previous extended to Iowa 62
Iowa 115 1.237 1.991 Viking Lake State Park US 34 near Stanton 01980-07-011980 02003-07-012003
Iowa 124 2.567 4.131 Iowa 4 Twin Lakes State Park 01924-01-011924 02003-07-012003
Iowa 131 4.520 7.274 Iowa 21 in Belle Plaine US 30 near Belle Plaine 02003-07-012003 Section of Lincoln Highway
Iowa 133 0.970 1.561 US 30 at Nevada Nevada 01963-01-011963 02003-07-012003
Iowa 142 20.901 33.637 Iowa 2 at Plano Iowa 5 at Moravia 01980-07-011980 02003-07-012003
Iowa 145 7.408 11.922 I-29 near Thurman US 275 near Sidney 01931-01-011931 02003-07-012003
Iowa 147 6.706 10.792 Rockford Iowa 14 near Roseville 02003-07-012003
Iowa 156 4.478 7.207 Iowa 5 near Attica Bussey 02003-07-012003
Iowa 157 1.032 1.661 US 63 near Lime Springs Lime Springs 02003-07-012003
Iowa 161 1.224 1.970 Iowa 141 west of Dedham Iowa 141 south of Dedham 02003-07-012003
Iowa 181 9.596 15.443 Melcher-Dallas Iowa 5 / Iowa 92 near Pleasantville 02003-07-012003
Iowa 183 31.143 50.120 US 6 in Council Bluffs Iowa 127 near Mondamin 01930-01-011930 current Remainder of route unchanged
Iowa 191 18.334 29.506 US 6 at Council Bluffs I-680 near Neola 01930-01-011930 current Remainder of route unchanged
Iowa 193 10.852 17.465 US 18 near Alpha Iowa 24 at Jackson Junction 02003-07-012003
Iowa 195 2.896 4.661 Iowa 4 near Plover Plover 02003-02-182003
Iowa 197 2.567 4.131 Iowa 3 near Albert City Albert City 02003-07-012003
Iowa 198 2.231 3.590 Garrison US 218 near Garrison, Iowa 02003-07-012003
Iowa 199 2.666 4.291 US 30 near Van Horne Van Horne 02003-07-012003
Iowa 200 2.163 3.481 US 30 near Keystone Keystone 02003-07-012003
Iowa 201 4.755 7.652 Norway US 30 near Norway 02003-07-012003
Iowa 204 5.407 8.702 Iowa 2 near Leon Garden Grove 02003-07-012003
Iowa 205 2.927 4.711 US 65 near Milo Milo 02003-07-012003
Iowa 206 6.221 10.012 US 65 near Liberty Center Lacona 02003-07-012003
Iowa 207 3.058 4.921 I-35 near New Virginia New Virginia 02003-07-012003
Iowa 214 5.736 9.231 Iowa 175 near Ivester Wellsburg 02003-07-012003
Iowa 215 8.738 14.062 Union Iowa 175 at Eldora 02003-07-012003
Iowa 221 3.909 6.291 I-35 near Story City Roland 02003-07-012003
Iowa 225 7.688 12.373 Sully Iowa 146 at Searsboro 02003-07-012003
Iowa 229 5.233 8.422 Garwin US 63 near Garwin 02003-07-012003
Iowa 231 4.068 6.547 US 34 west of New London US 34 east of New London 02003-07-012003
Iowa 238 1.063 1.711 Iowa 9 near Harris Harris 02003-07-012003
Iowa 239 0.510 0.821 Waubonsie State Park Iowa 2 near Sidney 01931-01-011931 02003-07-012003
Iowa 240 6.389 10.282 Royal US 71 near Greenville 02003-07-012003
Iowa 242 5.855 9.423 US 34 near Glenwood Silver City 02003-07-012003
Iowa 243 0.559 0.900 Black Hawk Lake State Park US 71 / Iowa 175 near Lake Park 01980-01-011980 02003-07-012003
Iowa 244 0.771 1.241 I-80 near Neola Iowa 191 in Neola 01980-07-011980 02003-07-012003
Iowa 249 0.665 1.070 Iowa 78 near Winfield Winfield 02003-07-012003
Iowa 252 0.584 0.940 US 61 / Iowa 92 at Grandview Grandview 02003-07-012003
Iowa 253 0.932 1.500 Iowa 14 near Williamson Williamson 02003-07-012003
Iowa 258 1.989 3.201 I-35 at Van Wert US 69 near Van Wert 02003-07-012003
Iowa 259 1.001 1.611 US 169 near Tingley Tingley 02003-07-012003
Iowa 263 12.511 20.135 US 20 / Iowa 14 near Dike US 20 near Cedar Falls 02003-02-182003
Iowa 266 1.709 2.750 US 69 near Weldon Weldon 02003-07-012003
Iowa 273 10.025 16.134 Lake Wapello State Park US 63 near Bloomfield 02003-07-012003
US 275 15.506 24.954 US 34 in Glenwood Iowa 92 at Council Bluffs 01932-01-011932 current Remainder of route unchanged
Iowa 276 4.711 7.582 Iowa 327 in Spirit Lake Minnesota state line near Mini-Wakan State Park 02003-07-012003
Iowa 279 1.983 3.191 US 30 near Atkins Atkins 02003-07-012003
Iowa 282 5.283 8.502 Quasqueton Iowa 939 near Winthrop 02003-07-012003
Iowa 283 5.861 9.432 Brandon Iowa 150 near Brandon 02003-07-012003
Iowa 285 0.796 1.281 US 30 near Arcadia Arcadia 02003-07-012003
Iowa 286 9.932 15.984 US 30 at Glidden Lanesboro 02003-07-012003
Iowa 287 1.833 2.950 US 30 near Newhall Newhall 02003-07-012003
Iowa 294 6.147 9.893 Iowa 2 near Kellerton Grand River 02003-07-012003
Iowa 297 3.543 5.702 Gilbertville Raymond 02003-07-012003
Iowa 299 5.556 8.942 New Providence Iowa 175 near Eldora 02003-07-012003
Iowa 300 1.411 2.271 Modale I-29 near Modale 02003-07-012003
Iowa 301 2.045 3.291 I-29 Little Sioux 02003-07-012003
Iowa 305 2.554 4.110 Letts US 61 / Iowa 92 near Letts 02003-07-012003
Iowa 306 0.783 1.260 US 65 near Derby Derby 02003-07-012003
Iowa 314 6.277 10.102 Ayrshire US 18 near Ruthven 02003-07-012003
Iowa 315 4.158 6.692 Iowa 4 near Palmer Palmer 02003-02-182003
Iowa 322 2.660 4.281 Pammel State Park Iowa 92 02003-07-012003
Iowa 324 0.510 0.821 Iowa 175 near Onawa Lewis and Clark State Park 02003-07-012003
Iowa 325 Spillville US 52 near Calmar 02003-07-012003
Iowa 327 Iowa 276 in Spirit Lake Orleans 02003-07-012003
Iowa 333 12.939 20.823 US 275 in Hamburg US 59 near Shenandoah Remainder of route unchanged
Iowa 340 2.231 3.590 Pikes Peak State Park US 18 Business in McGregor 01936-01-011936 02003-07-012003
Iowa 349 1.032 1.661 Lake Ahquabi State Park US 65 / US 69 near Indianola 02003-07-012003
Iowa 359 7.383 11.882 Buckeye Iowa 941 at Alden 02003-07-012003
Iowa 362 5.469 8.802 DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge I-29 near Loveland 02003-07-012003
Iowa 363 1.616 2.601 Iowa 150 near Urbana I-380 at Urbana 02003-07-012003
Iowa 364 6.140 9.881 Iowa 76 near Waukon Junction Harpers Ferry 02003-07-012003
Iowa 371 0.715 1.151 Lake Keomah State Park Iowa 92 near Keomah Village 02003-07-012003
Iowa 382 4.792 7.712 Lake Macbride State Park Iowa 1 in Solon 02003-07-012003
Iowa 383 1.311 2.110 US 69 near Randall Randall 02003-07-012003
Iowa 384 1.231 1.981 Iowa 25 near Guthrie Center Springbrook State Park 01944-01-011944 02003-07-012003
Iowa 385 3.151 5.071 Pacific Junction US 34 / US 275 in Glenwood 02003-02-182003
Iowa 386 2.685 4.321 US 52 / Iowa 3 / Iowa 32 at Sageville US 52 / Iowa 3 at Sageville 01945-01-011945 02003-07-012003
Iowa 390 2.113 3.401 South of Plainfield North of Plainfield 02002-01-012002 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 218
Iowa 403 0.477 0.768 SD 48 near Akron Iowa 12 in Akron 01980-01-011980 02003-07-012003
Iowa 404 1.391 2.239 Montrose US 61 near Montrose 01960-01-011960 02003-07-012003 Spur route
Iowa 405 0.249 0.401 Lone Tree Iowa 22 near Lone Tree 01958-01-011958 02003-07-012003 Spur route; section in Lone Tree removed 1980
Iowa 406 2.275 3.661 US 34 near West Burlington Burlington 01957-01-011957 02003-07-012003 Formerly Iowa 80; spur route
Iowa 410 2.157 3.471 Backbone State Park Iowa 3 / Iowa 13 near Strawberry Point 01958-01-011958 02003-07-012003 Park access road
Iowa 419 1.038 1.670 Victor US 6 / Iowa 21 near Victor 01962-01-011962 02003-07-012003 Spur route
Iowa 421 3.260 5.246 US 61 west of Blue Grass US 61 east of Blue Grass 02000-01-012000 02003-02-182003 Former section of US 61 at Blue Grass
Iowa 424 2.802 4.509 South of Swedesburg US 218 near Olds 01999-01-011999 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 218
Iowa 428 6.140 9.881 Maquoketa Caves State Park US 61 near Maquoketa 01980-01-011980 02003-07-012003 Park access road
Iowa 432 1.9 3.1 Iowa 163 in Oskaloosa Iowa 92 in Oskaloosa 01998-01-011998 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 163
Iowa 478 0.755 1.215 Iowa 24 in New Hampton North of New Hampton 02002-01-012002 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 63
Iowa 916 1.293 2.081 Iowa 281 in Oelwein Oelwein city limits 01986-01-011986 02003-07-012003 Originally ended at Iowa 915 in Oelwein; former section of Iowa 150
Iowa 917 0.149 0.240 US 61 and Iowa 22 near Muscatine Muscatine city limits 01986-01-011986 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 22
Iowa 918 1.119 1.801 Iowa 16 near Eldon Iowa 16 in Eldon 01984-01-011984 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 16; street signs said "Hwy 918"
Iowa 920 12.560 20.213 Center Point Iowa 150 near Urbana 01984-01-011984 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 150
Iowa 921 2.505 4.031 US 6 / Iowa 1 in Iowa City US 218 in Iowa City 01985-01-011985 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 218
Iowa 923 8.819 14.193 01982-01-011982 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 218; had three sections
Iowa 924 0.665 1.070 US 61 near Montrose Dead end in Montrose 01994-01-011994 02003-07-012003 Formerly Iowa 998; former section of US 61
Iowa 925 26.259 42.260 I-80 / US 6 in Adair US 6 near Dexter 01980-01-011980 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 6
Iowa 927 19.017 30.605 US 6 / Iowa 38 in Wilton I-280 / US 6 near Davenport 01980-01-011980 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 6; was signed in 1989
Iowa 928 20.168 32.457 Iowa 17 near Webster City CR D20 near Williams 01980-01-011980 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 20
Iowa 929 0.789 1.270 Murray city limits Maple Street in Murray 01980-01-011980 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 152
Iowa 931 8.962 14.423 I-35 in Ankeny US 65 in Polk County 01980-01-011980 02003-07-012003
Iowa 932 0.193 0.311 Ryan city limits Iowa 13 in Ryan 01976-01-011976 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 13
Iowa 935 1.492 2.401 I-29 Mills–Pottawattamie county line 01982-01-011982 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 370
Iowa 936 0.275 0.443 Iowa 92 near Ainsworth Iowa 923 near Ainsworth 01997-01-011997 02003-02-182003 Former section of Iowa 92
Iowa 937 0.460 0.740 Iowa 141 near Perry US 169 near Perry 01977-01-011977 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 141
Iowa 938 0.460 0.740 Union Street in Unionville Unionville south city limit boundary 01980-01-011980 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 369
Iowa 939 18.931 30.466 Iowa 187 near Masonville Black HawkBuchanan county line 01980-01-011980 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 20
Iowa 940 0.081 0.130 TamaBenton county line near Belle Plaine Iowa 21 near Belle Plaine 01981-01-011981 02003-07-012003
Iowa 941 12.953 20.846 I-35 near Williams Iowa Falls city limits 01991-01-011991 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 20
Iowa 942 0.466 0.750 Vine Street in Woodburn Woodburn city limits 01980-01-011980 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 104
Iowa 944 0.553 0.890 US 61 / Iowa 2 in Fort Madison Fort Madison city limits 01980-01-011980 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 88
Iowa 945 4.599 7.401 I-80 near Altoona Iowa 931 in Polk County 01980-01-011980 02003-07-012003
Iowa 947 0.671 1.080 Iowa 70 in Columbus Junction Market Street in Columbus City 01994-01-011994 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 70
Iowa 949 2.275 3.661 Glenwood city limits US 34 / US 275 near Glenwood 01974-01-011974 02003-02-182003 Formerly US 34 Business
Iowa 952 0.112 0.180 US 151 near Cascade Reiter Road near Cascade 01992-01-011992 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 151
Iowa 954 0.773 1.244 US 61 near Maquoketa Maquoketa city limits 01967-01-011967 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 61; numbered 1976
Iowa 955 0.727 1.170 US 61 near Key West Iowa 963 (Military Road) in Key West 01971-01-011971 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 61
Iowa 956 16.776 26.998 CR F55 at Davenport US 61 north of DeWitt 01976-01-011976 02003-02-182003 Former section of US 61
Iowa 957 0.062 0.100 01988-01-011988 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 22
Iowa 958 1.610 2.591 Ottumwa city limits US 63 south of Ottumwa 01965-01-011965 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 63
Iowa 963 4.139 6.661 US 151 near Key West US 61 / US 151 in Dubuque 01971-01-011971 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 151 and US 61
Iowa 967 0.037 0.060 US 20 near Farley Farley city limits 01976-01-011976 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 20
Iowa 970 0.31 0.50 US 75 Business in Sioux City Sioux City 01976-01-011976 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 75
Iowa 971 1.802 2.900 US 69 in Lake Mills Lake Mills city limits 01993-01-011993 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 105
Iowa 972 1.877 3.021 Northwood city limits Northwood city limits 01993-01-011993 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 105
Iowa 976 0.879 1.415 01997-01-011997 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 30
Iowa 977 2.007 3.230 US 59 in Cherokee Iowa 3 near Cherokee 01962-01-011962 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 3
Iowa 978 2.772 4.461 I-29 / US 34 near Glenwood Iowa 385 near Pacific Junction 01974-01-011974 02003-02-182003 Former section of US 34
Iowa 979 4.298 6.917 Iowa City limits JohnsonCedar county line 01961-01-011961 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 1
Iowa 982 27.787 44.719 Smithland city limits Sioux City city limits 01967-01-011967 02003-07-012003 Former section of Iowa 141
Iowa 985 1.927 3.101 US 52 near Bellevue State Park US 52 near Bellevue 01980-01-011980 02003-07-012003 Former section of US 52
Iowa 988 2.312 3.721 I-29 / I-680 near Crescent Iowa 183 in Crescent 01975-01-011975 02003-07-012003
  •       Former

Notes

  1. ^ Lengths represent the length of highway removed from the primary highway system on or before July 1, 2003.

References

  1. ^ "Evaluation of the State Highway System and Road Use Tax Fund" (PDF). April 1, 2003. Retrieved January 9, 2009.
  2. ^ Piller, Dan (July 29, 1979). "Roads: An Explosive Issue for the 1980s". The Des Moines Register. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  3. ^ 1979 Iowa Code (1978). "Establishment, Alteration, and Vacation of Highways". §306.8 Transfer of jurisdiction (PDF). p. 1400.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ a b c Johnston, Louis; Williamson, Samuel H. (2023). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved December 19, 2023. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
  5. ^ Bunton, Kristie (January 18, 1984). "Local Road: The Old Highway Nobody Wants". Iowa City Press-Citizen. p. 2. Retrieved August 20, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  6. ^ Reeder, Greg; Stevens, Larry; Fichtner, Royce; Stoner, Tom; Wandro, Mark; Volmer, Neil (April 1, 2003). "Evaluation of the State Highway System and Road Use Tax Fund" (PDF). State of Iowa. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
  7. ^ "Jurisdiction and Funding of Streets and Roads". Laws of the 80th General Assembly, Chapter No. 144 of 2003 (PDF). Iowa General Assembly. pp. 333–335. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
  8. ^ Petroski, William (February 19, 2003). "Cities, Counties Take Ownership of Some Roads". The Des Moines Register. p. 2B. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
  9. ^ 2002 Volume of Traffic on the Primary Road System of Iowa (PDF) (Report). Iowa Department of Transportation. January 1, 2002. Retrieved August 20, 2020.