M-28 Business (Ishpeming–Negaunee, Michigan)

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Business plate.svg

Business M-28

Bus. M-28 highlighted in red
Route information
Business route of M-28
Maintained by MDOT
Length4.873 mi[1] (7.842 km)
Existed1958 (1958)[2][3]–present
NHSNone[4]
Major junctions
West end US 41 / M-28 in Ishpeming
Major intersections City Truck Route in Negaunee
East end US 41 / M-28 in Negaunee
Location
CountryUnited States
StateMichigan
CountiesMarquette
Highway system

Bus. M-28

Bus. M-28
US 41Bus. US 41
Bus. US 41

Business M-28 (Bus. M-28) is a state trunkline highway serving as a business route that runs for approximately 4.9 miles (7.9 km) through the downtown districts of Ishpeming and Negaunee in the US state of Michigan. The trunkline provides a marked route for traffic diverting from U.S. Highway 41 (US 41) and M-28 through the two historic iron-mining communities. It is one of three business loops for M-numbered highways in the state of Michigan. There have previously been two other Bus. M-28 designations for highways in Newberry and Marquette.

The trunkline was originally a section of US 41/M-28 and M-35. Before the 1930s, the main highways ran through the two downtown areas when US 41/M-28 was relocated to run near Teal Lake. The former routing had various names over the years. It was designated as an alternate route of the main highways, using both the US 41A/M-28A and Alt. US 41/Alt. M-28 designations before it was designated as Bus. M-28 in 1958. M-35 continued to run through downtown Negaunee along a section of the highway until the 1960s. A rerouting in 1999 moved the trunkline designation along Lakeshore Drive in Ishpeming, and a streetscape project rebuilt the road in Negaunee in 2005.

Route description

There are three business routes in the state of Michigan derived from M-numbered highways. The other two are for M-32 in Hillman and for M-60 in Niles.[5] In the past, two other business routes for M-28 existed in Newberry (1936[6]–1953[7]) and Marquette (1974[8][9]–1981[10][11]), but they have since been retired. The extant Bus. M-28 designation remains for the loop through Ishpeming and Negaunee.

Ishpeming

Bus. M-28 begins at a signalized intersection on US 41/M-28 and the Lake Superior Circle Tour (LSCT) with Lakeshore Drive in the city of Ishpeming. The trunkline runs south along Lakeshore Drive under the tracks of the Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad (LS&I) and southeasterly towards Lake Bancroft. South of the lake, Bus. M-28 turns east on Division Street.[12] Traffic along the highway here can view the towers of the Cliffs Shaft Mine Museum; the museum is dedicated to telling the story of underground iron ore mining in the region.[13][14]

A large grey building, wider at the top that towers over the pine trees in the foreground
Tower of the Cliffs Shaft Mine in Ishpeming

Division Street carries the Bus. M-28 designation into the central business district of Ishpeming, where it runs past local businesses, Ishpeming High School and the original Ishpeming City Hall. On the east side of downtown, both the central machine shops and the research labs for Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company are located on Division Street. Continuing east, the trunkline follows Ready Street over hills and through a residential area to the Ishpeming–Negaunee city line.[5][12]

Negaunee

In Negaunee, the routing uses a street named County Road east from the city line. County Road passes Jackson Park, location of the first iron ore discovery in the area. The iron mined from the region supplied half of the nation's supply between 1850 and 1900.[15] South of downtown Negaunee, Bus. M-28 turns north along the west fork of Silver Street. The street runs north under an overpass that carries Rail Street,[5][12] a former rail line into downtown Negaunee.[16] The trunkline turns east on Jackson Street, running next to the Negaunee City Hall,[5][12] which was built in 1914–1915 when the city's population was increasing and iron production was peaking. The building still houses the city's offices, police station and library.[17]

A large sandstone building with a central clock tower
Negaunee City Hall located on the corner of Silver and Jackson streets, next to Bus. M-28

The business loop follows Jackson Street east to Division Street, where the street curves slightly and becomes Main Street. Bus. M-28 follows Main Street one block to the intersection with Teal Lake Avenue. Turning north, the trunkline follows Teal Lake Avenue through residential areas of town past the Negaunee Middle School and up over a hill. On the opposite side of the hill next to Teal Lake Bluff, the business loop intersects Arch Street, which carries traffic to Negaunee High School to the west or the football field complex to the east.[5][12] Negaunee High School was the site of the former Mather B Mine Complex. The administration building for the mine was converted to its present educational use in 1986.[18] Bus. M-28 continues along Teal Lake Avenue past the football field and under the LS&I tracks where it ends at another signalized intersection with US 41/M-28/LSCT by Teal Lake.[5][12] The total length of Bus. M-28 is 4.873 miles (7.842 km).[1]

Traffic counts

The Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) publishes traffic data for the highways it maintains. On Lakeshore Drive in Ishpeming, MDOT stated that 5,619 vehicles on average used the roadway daily in 2019. Along Division Street, traffic drops to 2,711 vehicles before increasing to 3,254 vehicles along the section on Silver Street in Negaunee. Traffic decreases along Jackson and Main streets to 1,762 vehicles on an average day. Traffic is heaviest along Teal Lake Avenue, at 6,810 vehicles.[19]

History

Photograph of Bus. M-28 (Division Street)
Downtown Ishpeming

The state highway system was created on May 13, 1913, with the passage of the State Reward Trunk Line Highway Act.[20] The state first signposted these highways by July 1, 1919,[21] and the roadways that make up Bus. M-28 were originally a portion of M-15.[22] Later when the United States Numbered Highway System was created on November 11, 1926,[23] the highway was redesignated as a part of US 41[24] and part of M-28.[25] The main highway was moved with the construction of a northerly bypass of Ishpeming and Negaunee in 1937.[26][27][27] The business loop was not designated Bus. M-28 permanently and marked on state maps until 1958.[2][3] It was internally designated US 41A/M-28A[28][29] before being redesignated Alt. US 41/Alt. M-28. or Bus. US 41/Bus. M-28.[30] This dual designation later was mirrored by the other Marquette County business route, Bus. US 41.[9] Occasionally, more recent maps use this older numbering to label the highway.[31]

When M-35 was routed through downtown Negaunee, it joined Bus. M-28 northward from the east fork of Silver Street on to US 41/M-28. Construction of the Empire Mine in 1963 necessitated the relocation of the highway from Palmer to Negaunee.[32] This routing was moved to bypass the city in 1968.[33][34] From this point on, Bus. M-28 has not shared its routing with any other state trunklines.

Photograph of
The Y in Silver Street south of downtown Negaunee; until the late 1960s, M-35 followed the eastern branch (left) and now Bus. M-28 follows the western (right)

In 1969, the Michigan Department of State Highways[a] petitioned the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO)[b] to approve a Bus. US 41 designation for the trunkline. Action on the request was deferred by AASHTO's U.S. Route Numbering Subcommittee,[37] and then denied the following year.[38] The western end of Bus. M-28 was rerouted on June 4, 1999, when the City of Ishpeming petitioned MDOT to reroute the highway along Lakeshore Drive to US 41/M-28.[39] Previously, it ran along Greenwood Street and North Lake Road and met US 41/M-28 in the West Ishpeming neighborhood of Ishpeming Township.[40]

MDOT in a partnership with the City of Negaunee upgraded Teal Lake Avenue between Arch and Rock streets in a streetscaping project to provide a "pedestrian refuge area". This work entailed reconstruction of the retaining wall, curbing and gutters in 2005.[41] Arch Street is the access to Negaunee High School, and this section of Bus. M-28 is near the athletic field complex in Negaunee.[42] The project budgeted $120,200 with $24,200 from the City of Negaunee (equivalent to $173,900 and $35,000 respectively in 2022[43]).[41]

Major intersections

A road sign assembly showing a To plate over a County Road 480 sign and a Business plate over an M-28 sign. Both feature right arrows indicating that Business M-28 turns right and runs to a connection with County Road 480.
Direction signage at the corner of Teal Lake Avenue and Main Street in Negaunee to direct motorists traveling on Bus. M-28 to CR 480

The entire highway is in Marquette County.

Locationmi[1]kmDestinationsNotes
Ishpeming0.0000.000 US 41 / M-28 / LSCT (Palms Avenue) – Baraga, Marquette
0.7911.273
Greenwood Street to CR 494
Former route of Bus. M-28
1.0261.651
Pine Street to CR 581
Negaunee4.2676.867
City Truck Route (Division Street) to CR 480
4.8737.842 US 41 / M-28 / LSCT – Baraga, Marquette
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Michigan State Highway Department, also called the Michigan Department of State Highways after the mid-1960s, was reorganized into the Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation on August 23, 1973. The name was shortened to its current form in 1978.[35]
  2. ^ AASHO was renamed the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) on November 13, 1973.[36]

References

  1. ^ a b c Michigan Department of Transportation (2021). Next Generation PR Finder (Map). Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved October 11, 2021.
  2. ^ a b Michigan State Highway Department (October 1, 1957). Official Highway Map (Map). [c. 1:918,720]. Lansing: Michigan State Highway Department. § C5. OCLC 12701120, 367386492.
  3. ^ a b Michigan State Highway Department (1958). Official Highway Map (Map). [c. 1:918,720]. Lansing: Michigan State Highway Department. § C5. OCLC 12701120, 51856742. Retrieved October 17, 2019 – via Michigan History Center. (Includes all changes through July 1, 1958)
  4. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (2023). National Functional Classification (Map). Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved July 18, 2023.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Michigan Department of Transportation (2014). Pure Michigan: State Transportation Map (Map). c. 1:975,000. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. §§ C5, N8, F12. OCLC 42778335, 900162490.
  6. ^ Michigan State Highway Department & Rand McNally (June 1, 1936). Official Michigan Highway Map (Map). [c. 1:850,000]. Lansing: Michigan State Highway Department. § C9. OCLC 12701143.
  7. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (April 15, 1953). Official Highway Map (Map). [c. 1:918,720]. Lansing: Michigan State Highway Department. § C9. OCLC 12701120.
  8. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1974). Michigan, Great Lake State: Official Transportation Map (Map). c. 1:190,080. Lansing: Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation. Marquette inset. OCLC 12701177, 83138602. Retrieved October 17, 2019 – via Michigan History Center.
  9. ^ a b Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1975). Michigan, Great Lake State: Official Transportation Map (Map). c. 1:190,080. Lansing: Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation. Marquette inset. OCLC 12701177, 320798754. Retrieved October 17, 2019 – via Michigan History Center.
  10. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1980). Michigan, Great Lake State: Official Transportation Map (Map) (1980–1981 ed.). c. 1:190,080. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. Marquette inset. OCLC 12701177, 606211521.
  11. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1981). Michigan, Great Lake State: Official Transportation Map (Map) (1980–1981 ed.). c. 1:190,080. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. Marquette inset. OCLC 12701177, 606211521. Retrieved October 17, 2019 – via Michigan History Center.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Google (March 8, 2008). "Overview Map of Bus. M-28" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
  13. ^ Hunt, Mary & Hunt, Don (2007). "Ishpeming—Cliffs Shaft Mining Museum". Hunts' Guide to Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Albion, Michigan: Midwestern Guides. Archived from the original on December 31, 2009. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
  14. ^ "Cliff's Shaft Mining Museum: Remnants of History". The Mining Journal. Marquette, Michigan. May 2, 2008. ISSN 0898-4964. OCLC 9729223. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
  15. ^ Hunt, Mary & Hunt, Don (2007). "Negaunee". Hunts' Guide to Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Albion, Michigan: Midwestern Guides. Archived from the original on January 25, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
  16. ^ Uren, Richard (November 2007). "National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form: Michigan SP Marquette and Western Railroad Negaunee Freight Depot". National Archives NextGen Catalog. National Archives and Records Administration. §7, p. 1. NAID 25340081. Retrieved February 2, 2023.
  17. ^ Hunt, Mary & Hunt, Don (2007). "Downtown Negaunee". Hunts' Guide to Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Albion, Michigan: Midwestern Guides. Archived from the original on January 25, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
  18. ^ Negaunee Public Schools (n.d.). "Facilities". Negaunee Public Schools. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2010.
  19. ^ Bureau of Transportation Planning (2021). "Transportation Data Management System". Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  20. ^ Michigan Legislature (1915) [enacted May 13, 1913]. "Chapter 91: State Reward Trunk Line Highways". In Shields, Edmund C.; Black, Cyrenius P. & Broomfield, Archibald (eds.). The Compiled Laws of the State of Michigan. Vol. 1. Lansing, Michigan: Wynkoop, Hallenbeck, Crawford. pp. 1868–1872. OCLC 44724558. Retrieved January 24, 2012 – via Google Books.
  21. ^ "Michigan May Do Well Following Wisconsin's Road Marking System". The Grand Rapids Press. September 20, 1919. p. 10. OCLC 9975013.
  22. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (July 1, 1919). State of Michigan (Map). Scale not given. Lansing: Michigan State Highway Department. Upper Peninsula sheet. OCLC 15607244. Retrieved December 18, 2016 – via Michigan State University Libraries.
  23. ^ McNichol, Dan (2006). The Roads that Built America: The Incredible Story of the US Interstate System. New York: Sterling. p. 74. ISBN 1-4027-3468-9. OCLC 63377558.
  24. ^ Bureau of Public Roads & American Association of State Highway Officials (November 11, 1926). United States System of Highways Adopted for Uniform Marking by the American Association of State Highway Officials (Map). 1:7,000,000. Washington, DC: United States Geological Survey. OCLC 32889555. Retrieved November 7, 2013 – via Wikimedia Commons.
  25. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (December 1, 1926). Official Highway Condition Map (Map). [c. 1:823,680]. Lansing: Michigan State Highway Department.
  26. ^ Michigan State Highway Department & Rand McNally (May 15, 1937). Official Michigan Highway Map (Map) (Summer ed.). [c. 1:850,000]. Lansing: Michigan State Highway Department. § B5. OCLC 12701143. Retrieved October 17, 2019 – via Michigan History Center.
  27. ^ a b Michigan State Highway Department & Rand McNally (December 1, 1937). Official Michigan Highway Map (Map) (Winter ed.). [c. 1:850,000]. Lansing: Michigan State Highway Department. § B5. OCLC 12701143. Retrieved October 17, 2019 – via Michigan History Center.
  28. ^ Marquette County Road Commission (1939). Marquette County (Map). Scale not given. Ishpeming, Michigan: Marquette County Road Commission.
  29. ^ Marquette County Road Commission (1950). Marquette County (Map). Scale not given. Ishpeming, Michigan: Marquette County Road Commission.
  30. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1951). City of Ishpeming Act 51 Map (Map). Scale not given. Lansing: Michigan State Highway Department.
  31. ^ City of Negaunee (2006). "City of Negaunee, Map 3" (PDF) (Map). West Old Town Points of Interest & Maps. Scale not given. Negaunee, Michigan: City of Negaunee. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 15, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  32. ^ Koski, Allan (2020). Fulsher, Ali (ed.). Empire Mine, Cascade Mine. Ishpeming, Michigan: Globe Printing. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-578-78227-0.
  33. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1968). Official Highway Map (Map). [c. 1:918,720]. Lansing: Michigan Department of State Highways. § C5. OCLC 12701120. Retrieved October 17, 2019 – via Michigan History Center.
  34. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways & H.M. Gousha (1969). Michigan, Great Lake State: Official Highway Map (Map). c. 1:918,720. Lansing: Michigan Department of State Highways. § C5. OCLC 12701120. Retrieved October 17, 2019 – via Michigan History Center.
  35. ^ Kulsea, Bill & Shawver, Tom (1980). Making Michigan Move: A History of Michigan Highways and the Michigan Department of Transportation. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. pp. 27, 30–31. OCLC 8169232. Retrieved January 18, 2021 – via Wikisource.
  36. ^ Federal Highway Administration (December 4, 2012). "November 13". Highway History. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  37. ^ U.S. Route Numbering Subcommittee (October 26, 1969). "U.S. Route Numbering Subcommittee Agenda Showing Action Taken by the Executive Committee" (Report). Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway Officials. p. 2. Retrieved July 17, 2015 – via Wikisource.
  38. ^ U.S. Route Numbering Subcommittee (November 7, 1970). "U.S. Route Numbering Subcommittee Agenda Showing Action Taken by the Executive Committee" (PDF) (Report). Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway Officials. p. 4. Retrieved July 17, 2015 – via Wikimedia Commons.
  39. ^ State Administrative Board (February 20, 2007). "State Administrative Board Resolutions, 1940–Present". Lansing: State of Michigan. p. 49. OCLC 85834636. Retrieved January 1, 2023 – via Library of Michigan Digital Repository.
  40. ^ Rockford Map Publishers; Marquette County 4-H Council (1995). "T47N S27W" (Map). Marquette County, Land Atlas & Plat Book (13th ed.). 1:50,688. Rockford, Illinois: Rockford Map Publishers. OCLC 34788305.{{cite map}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  41. ^ a b Michigan Department of Transportation (n.d.). "FY 2005 Awarded Enhancement Project Summaries" (PDF). Michigan Department of Transportation. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 23, 2007. Retrieved March 18, 2008.
  42. ^ NovoPrint USA; Travel Marquette (2019). Marquette County: Roads, Trails, Attractions, Lodging (Map) (8th ed.). 1:31,680. Milwaukee: NovoPrint USA. Ishpeming and Negaunee inset. OCLC 1146086218.
  43. ^ Johnston, Louis & Williamson, Samuel H. (2023). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved December 19, 2023. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.

External links