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This template generates an abbreviation for circa: c. By default the abbreviation is marked with an HTML <abbr> tag, which in most browsers renders as a tooltip when hovered.


Syntax What it looks like Notes
{{circa|1325}} c. 1325 Default style: no line break allowed; thin space
{{circa|1325|lk=yes}} c. 1325 Replace abbreviation tooltip with a link to Wiktionary instead
{{circa|1325|lk=no}} c. 1325 No abbreviation tooltip at all
{{circa|1000|1050}} c. 1000 – c. 1050 For a range with both dates uncertain. No tooltip on the second instance of "c."
{{circa|1000–1050}} c. 1000–1050 Another option for a range; but, prefer {{circa|1000|1050}}


Using the date itself as parameter (for example, "{{circa|1956}}", giving "c. 1956"), web browsers do not insert a line break anywhere in the string. By contrast, "{{circa}} 1956" allows a line break between the "c." and the number. Also, with the date as a parameter a thinner space is used with many browsers:

  • "c. 1956" is generated by "{{circa|1956}}".
  • "c. 1956" is generated by "{{circa}} 1956".

If the parameter |lk= (for "link") is set as "|lk=no" or "|lk=off", the abbreviation is rendered as "c.", without a wikilink or abbreviation element. If it is absent, or set to "|lk=abbr", the abbreviation is rendered with the HTML <abbr> element. If it is set to "|lk=yes" or "|lk=on", it is rendered as "c.", with a wikilink to the wikt:circa article in Wiktionary and not an abbreviation element. lk=no can be used to avoid overlinking when this template is used repeatedly in the body of an article. For example:

  • [[w:Dionysius Exiguus|Dionysius Exiguus]] was born {{circa|470}}, lived in Rome from {{circa|lk=no|500}}, and died {{circa|lk=no|544}}.
    Dionysius Exiguus was born c. 470, lived in Rome from c. 500, and died c. 544.

If the parameter "sortable=yes" is specified, the template generates invisible text that will cause the column to sort correctly in sortable tables. However, it is at the cost of having that invisible text read out audibly by many screen readers. "Col 1" without the parameter does not sort correctly. "Col 2" with the sortable parameter sorts correctly.

Title Col 1 Col 2
Foo 1066 1066
Bar c. 1510 1510 c. 1510
Baz 1956 1956
Jaz c. 410 0410 c. 410
{| class="sortable wikitable" style=text-align:right;
! Title!!Col 1!!Col 2
| style=text-align:left; | Foo|| 1066|| 1066
| style=text-align:left; | Bar|| c. 1510|| {{circa|1510|sortable=yes}}
| style=text-align:left; | Baz|| 1956|| 1956
| style=text-align:left; | Jaz|| c. 410|| {{circa|410|sortable=yes}}

Tracking categories


This is the TemplateData for this template used by TemplateWizard, VisualEditor and other tools. See a monthly parameter usage report for Template:Circa in articles based on its TemplateData.

TemplateData for Circa

<templatedata> { "params": { "1": { "label": "year", "type": "string", "suggested": true, "description": "An approximate date", "example": "1965" }, "2": { "label": "end year", "type": "string", "description": "Use when the start and end dates of a range are both approximate.", "example": "1980" }, "sortable": { "label": "sortable", "description": "Set to “yes” for values in sortable tables", "suggestedvalues": [ "yes" ], "default": "yes" }, "lk": { "label": "link", "description": "If ‘on’, a link is added to the wiktionary article for circa. If ‘off’, the c. does not link or tooltip “circa”. Should be set to ‘off’ for the second and subsequent uses of this template. (Values ‘yes’ or ‘no’ may also be used.)", "type": "string", "suggestedvalues": [ "on", "off" ] } }, "paramOrder": [ "1", "2", "lk", "sortable" ], "description": "This template generates an abbreviation for circa." } </templatedata>