Ontario Highway 10

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Highway 10

A map of Highway 10, in red
Route information
Maintained by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario
Length137.3 km[1] (85.3 mi)
HistoryEstablished September 1848[2]
Designated February 26, 1920[3]
Major junctions
South endNorthern terminus of  Highway 410Caledon
Major intersections Highway 9Orangeville
 Highway 89Shelburne
North end  Highway 21 / Highway 26Owen Sound
Major citiesOwen Sound, Brampton
TownsMarkdale, Shelburne, Orangeville, Caledon
Highway system
Highway 9 Highway 11

King's Highway 10, commonly referred to as Highway 10 and Hurontario Street, is a provincially maintained highway in the Canadian province of Ontario. The highway connects the northern end of Highway 410 just north of Brampton with Owen Sound on the southern shores of Georgian Bay, passing through the towns of Orangeville and Shelburne as well as several smaller villages along the way. It historically followed the Toronto–Sydenham Road, the southern part of which later became known as Hurontario Street. The section between Orangeville and Primrose was formerly part of Prince of Wales Road, which continues northwards after the highway turns west.[4] Between Chatsworth and Owen Sound, Highway 10 is concurrent with Highway 6.

Highway 10 was established in 1920 as one of the original provincial highways in Ontario, connecting Highway 5 in Cooksville with Owen Sound. It was extended south by 1937 to Highway 2 in Port Credit. That same year, it became the site of the first highway interchange in Canada at its intersection with The Middle Road. Since the late 1990s, the southern portion has been truncated to its current terminus north of the BramptonCaledon border.

Route description

A freeway changes into a four-lane conventional road, and vanishes into the rural foothills
Highway 410 ends as Highway 10 begins

Highway 10 begins at the northern end of Highway 410 in Caledon, immediately north of Brampton. It follows Hurontario Street, a route originally carved through the virgin forests of Upper Canada in 1848.[5] Like the pioneer route it supplanted, the modern highway still divides many of the towns it serves. Within the Regional Municipality of Peel it acts as the meridian of the concession road system, with parallel sidelines described as being east or west of Hurontario (EHS and WHS, repsectively) and perpendicular concession roads divided into eastern and western segments.[6]

Passing to the west of Valleywood, a suburban community on the fringe of the Greater Toronto Area, Highway 10 begins as Highway 410 transitions from a divided freeway to a four-lane rural route with a centre turn lane. The highway presses north-northwest through farmland and rises gradually over the Niagara Escarpment, a UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve. To the west are the Forks of the Credit, a deep glacial ravine and provincial park renowned for its scenery. It passes between several large quarries and through Caledon Village before entering Orangeville at Highway 9, where it diverges from Hurontario Street.[7]

Highway 10 passes to the east of Orangeville on a bypass, switching between Hurontario Street and Prince of Wales Road alignments to avoid the business district. At the north end of the bypass, the highway curves and proceeds northward. It narrows to four lanes immediately north of Orangeville and then to two lanes north of Camilla, which along with Elba is one of two communities interspersed among the farmland that otherwise occupies the distance between Orangeville and Shelburne. At the hamlet of Primrose, Highway 10 turns west and becomes concurrent with Highway 89 into the town of Shelburne. The concurrency ends in the centre of Shelburne, as Highway 10 branches north.[7]

From Shelburne to Owen Sound, the road follows the northernmost part of the former Toronto–Sydenham Road, a colonization road that predates the division of the land in the area. As such, the road follows a diagonal path relative to the survey grid.[5] While it generally passes through farmland, it also bisects the communities of Melancthon, Corbetton, Dundalk, Flesherton—where it meets a former portion of Highway 4Markdale, Mount Pleasant, Berkeley and Arnott before meeting Highway 6 at Chatsworth. The two highways travel north for approximately 13 kilometers (8 mi) through the community of Rockford. Highway 10 ends at 10th Street East, where it meets the western terminus of Highway 26 as well as the northern terminus of Highway 21. Highway 6 continues northwest, concurrent with Highway 21 through Owen Sound.[1][7]


Highway 10 through Caledon

Historically, Highway 10 follows the 19th-century stagecoach route known as the Toronto–Sydenham Road (the southern half of which later became absorbed into Hurontario Street). It travelled north from Dundas Street (later Highway 5) in Cooksville through Brampton, Orangeville and Shelburne to Owen Sound.[5]

In order to be eligible for federal funding, the Department of Public Highways (DPHO) established a network of provincial highways on February 26, 1920.[8] Portions of the network were then assumed by the DPHO over the following year. The section of Highway 10 within Dufferin County between Orangeville and Dundalk was taken over on July 8, 1920. This was followed several weeks later by the portion within Peel County (now Peel Region) between Cooksville and Orangeville on July 22. Finally, the DPHO assumes the portion within Grey County on October 6.[9] It was later extended south from Cooksville when the provincial government assumed the remaining stretch to Lakeshore Road (Highway 2) in Port Credit, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, on March 16, 1921.[10] Until the mid-1920s, highways in Ontario were named rather than numbered. The 166-kilometer (103 mi) Sydenham Highway was designated as Provincial Highway 10 in the summer of 1925.[3][11]

While initially unpaved,[12][13][14][15] construction of a hard surface along Highway 10 began in 1923. That year saw completion of paving between Port Credit and Cooksville, as well as between Chatsworth and Owen Sound.[15][16] Paving was completed between Cooksville and Brampton in 1925,[17] and for 11.8 kilometers (7.3 mi) north of Brampton and 9.7 kilometers (6.0 mi) northwest of Melancthon in 1926.[18] Further paving in 1928 and 1929 resulted in the highway having a continuous pavement from Port Credit to Dundalk.[19][20] Pavement was laid in and near the villages of Flesherton and Markdale in 1931,[21] and between Dundalk and Markdale in 1934.[22] The pavement was extended from Markdale to Berkeley in 1936, leaving an approximately 17-kilometer (11 mi) gap between Berkeley and Chatsworth.[23] This final gravel section was graded and paved in 1937 and 1938.[24][25]

Highway 10 initially entered Owen Sound along 9th Avenue East, before turning west onto 6th Street East, then north along 2nd Avenue East to Highway 21 and Highway 26 at 10th Avenue East.[26] The official Ontario road maps published between 1947 and 1967 show the route following 3rd Avenue East instead of 2nd Avenue East. Beginning in 1968, the combined highways followed 9th Avenue East directly to 10th Street East, as they do today. Within Orangeville, Highway 10 formerly turned west onto Highway 9 and ran concurrently with it through downtown along Broadway, then turned north to follow First Street (the Prince of Wales Road alignment).[14] In mid-1971, a bypass around Orangeville was completed, bypassing a short section of the Hurontario Street alignment.[27]

The northern terminus of Highway 10 in Owen Sound

As Mississauga was established in 1968 from Toronto Township (which included Cooksville),[28] and later Port Credit, and began to rapidly urbanize and as Brampton grew during the same period, portions of Highway 10 were designated as connecting links and transferred to municipal maintenance through the two cities. On April 1, 1970, a 5.2-kilometer (3.2 mi) segment of the route, from the Port Credit railway underpass to Burnhamthorpe Road, was designated as such. This was followed on December 10, 1970, with the creation of a 2.0 kilometers (1.2 mi) connecting link between Steeles Avenue to south of Clarence Street near downtown Brampton.[29] In 1997, these connecting links were repealed and the highway designation dropped altogether through those cities, shortening the highway to its present length.[30]

In 2009, a major project to widen two-lane sections of the southern portions of the highway was completed, and the highway is now four lanes wide from Highway 410 north to Camilla. From Shelburne north to Owen Sound, it remains a two-lane highway with several passing lanes in hillier regions.

During winter, the northern stretches of the highway that pass through the snowbelt region of Grey County are subject to poor visibility and road closings during windy conditions or winter storms.

Major intersections

The following table lists the major junctions along Highway 10, as noted by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario.[1] 

PeelMississauga−28.9−46.5 Highway 2 (Lakeshore Road)
−26.9−43.3 QEW – Toronto, Hamilton
−25.0−40.2 Highway 5 (Dundas Street)
−22.9−36.9Burnhamthorpe Road
−21.8−35.1 Highway 403 – Toronto, Hamilton
−20.8−33.5Eglinton Avenue
−17.2−27.7 Highway 401 – Toronto, London
Brampton−13.5−21.7 Highway 407
−11.6−18.7 Regional Road 15 (Steeles Avenue)
−8.5−13.7Queen Street
−5.4−8.7 Highway 7 (Bovaird Drive) – Georgetown, VaughanHighway 7 was downloaded to the Region of Peel in 1998
Now known as Regional Road 107.
−1.0−1.6 Regional Road 14 (Mayfield Road)
Caledon0.00.0 Highway 410 south – MississaugaHighway 10 begins as Highway 410 transitions from a divided freeway to an undivided four-lane road
5.28.4 Regional Road 9 (King Street) – Terra Cotta, Bolton
14.523.3Forks of the Credit Road
18.930.4 Regional Road 24 (Charleston Sideroad) – GuelphFormerly Highway 24 south; south end of former Highway 24 concurrency
DufferinPeel lineCaledonOrangeville line28.345.5Dufferin Road 109 sign.png County Road 109 west – ArthurCounty road serving as a Highway 9 bypass of Orangeville that links discontinuous sections of that highway
DufferinOrangeville28.946.5 Highway 9 east – NewmarketHighway 10 departs the Hurontario Street alignment
29.447.3Broadway / Buena Vista DriveFormer route of Highway 9
Biggles32.251.8 County Road 7 east (Hockley Road) – Loretto
County Road 16 west (5th Sideroad)
Camilla38.361.6 County Road 8 east (Mono Centre Road) – Mono Centre
Primrose48.678.2 Highway 89 east – AllistonBeginning of Highway 89 concurrency and former triple concurrency with Highway 24
Shelburne52.684.7 County Road 124 north – CollingwoodFormerly Highway 24 north; end of former triple concurrency
53.986.7 Highway 89 west – Mount ForestEnd of Highway 89 concurrency
DufferinGrey lineDundalk72.7117.0 County Road 9 west
County Road 9 east – Creemore
GreyChatsworth124.5200.4 Highway 6 southBeginning of Highway 6 concurrency
Owen Sound137.3221.0 Highway 21 south / Highway 26 eastEnd of Highway 6 concurrency; Highway 6 continues west concurrent with Highway 21
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
  •       Closed/former
  •       Concurrency terminus

See also

Hurontario Street


  1. ^ a b c Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (2016). "Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) counts". Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  2. ^ Shragge & Bagnato 1984, p. 40.
  3. ^ a b Shragge & Bagnato 1984, p. 74.
  4. ^ "Heritage Walking Tour Brochure Page 4. Orangeville's Timeline (PDF)" (PDF). History of Orangeville. Town of Orangeville. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
  5. ^ a b c Shragge & Bagnato 1984, pp. 40–41.
  6. ^ Wood Environment & Infrastructure Solutions (January 21, 2022). "2.2.2 Review of Historical Records". Heritage Road Layover Original Report: Stage 1 Archaeological Assessment (PDF) (Report). Metrolinx. p. 20. Retrieved November 13, 2022.
  7. ^ a b c Ontario Back Road Atlas (Map). Cartography by MapArt. Mapart Publishing. 2011. pp. 23, 28–29, 39. §§ Z19–K28. ISBN 1-55198-226-9.
  8. ^ Shragge & Bagnato 1984, pp. 73–74.
  9. ^ "Provincial Highways Assumed in 1920". Annual Report (Report) (1920 ed.). Department of Public Highways. April 26, 1921. pp. 40–43. Retrieved October 4, 2022 – via Internet Archive.
  10. ^ "Provincial Highways Assumed in 1921". Annual Report (Report) (1921 ed.). Department of Public Highways. April 26, 1923. p. 23. Retrieved October 4, 2022 – via Internet Archive.
  11. ^ "Provincial Highways Now Being Numbered". The Canadian Engineer. Monetary Times Print. 49 (8): 246. August 25, 1925. Numbering of the various provincial highways in Ontario has been commenced by the Department of Public Highways. Resident engineers are now receiving metal numbers to be placed on poles along the provincial highways. These numbers will also be placed on poles throughout cities, towns and villages, and motorists should then have no trouble in finding their way in and out of urban municipalities. Road designations from "2" to "17" have already been allotted...
  12. ^ Brampton, Ontario. Map Sheet 30 M/12 (Map) (4 ed.). 1:63,360. Cartography by Survey Division, Department of Militia and Defence. Department of National Defence. 1922. Retrieved November 13, 2022 – via Scholars GeoPortal.
  13. ^ Bolton, Ontario. Map Sheet 30 M/13 (Map) (2 ed.). 1:63,360. Cartography by Survey Division, Department of Militia and Defence. Department of National Defence. 1919. Retrieved November 13, 2022 – via Scholars GeoPortal.
  14. ^ a b Orangeville, Ontario. Map Sheet 40 P/16 (Map) (1 ed.). 1:63,360. Cartography by Geographical Section, General Staff. Department of National Defence. 1939. Retrieved November 13, 2022 – via Scholars GeoPortal.
  15. ^ a b Ontario Road Map (Map) (1925 ed.). Department of Public Highways of Ontario. Archived from the original on January 29, 2022. Retrieved November 13, 2022 – via Archives of Ontario.
  16. ^ "Port Credit–Owen Sound Highway". Annual Report (Report) (1921 ed.). Department of Public Highways. April 26, 1923. p. 52. Retrieved November 13, 2022 – via Internet Archive.
  17. ^ "Report on Provincial Highways". Annual Report (Report) (1923, 1924 and 1924 ed.). Department of Public Highways. April 26, 1926. p. 68. Retrieved November 13, 2022 – via Internet Archive. South from Brampton 5 miles of bituminous macadam were laid, which makes a continuous bituminous macadam pavement from Cooksville to Brampton.
  18. ^ "Provincial Highway Construction, 1926". Annual Report (Report) (1926 and 1927 ed.). Department of Public Highways. February 12, 1929. p. 23. Retrieved November 14, 2022 – via Internet Archive. West of Toronto, 7.3 miles of bituminous penetration were laid north from Brampton ...
  19. ^ "Provincial Highway Construction, 1929". Annual Report (Report) (1928 and 1929 ed.). Department of Public Highways. March 2, 1931. p. 23. Retrieved November 14, 2022 – via Internet Archive.
  20. ^ Ontario Road Map (Map) (1930–31 ed.). Department of Highways of Ontario. §§ E4–F5. Archived from the original on January 15, 2022. Retrieved November 14, 2022 – via Archives of Ontario.
  21. ^ "Pavement Construction on the Highway System in 1931". Annual Report (Report) (1930 and 1931 ed.). Department of Public Highways. October 21, 1932. p. 33. Retrieved November 14, 2022 – via Internet Archive.
  22. ^ "1934—Construction by Residencies". Annual Report (Report) (1934 ed.). Department of Highways. March 18, 1935. p. 99. Retrieved November 14, 2022 – via Internet Archive.
  23. ^ "King's Highway Operations". Annual Report (Report) (1936 ed.). Department of Highways. February 23, 1938. p. 20. Retrieved November 14, 2022 – via Internet Archive.
  24. ^ "Division No. 5—Owen Sound". Annual Report (Report) (1937 ed.). Department of Highways. April 20, 1939. p. 22. Retrieved November 14, 2022 – via Internet Archive.
  25. ^ "Division No. 5—Stratford". Annual Report (Report) (1938 ed.). Department of Highways. October 26, 1939. p. 25. Retrieved November 14, 2022 – via Internet Archive.
  26. ^ Ontario Road Map (Map) (1929 ed.). Department of Public Highways of Ontario. Owen Sound inset. Archived from the original on November 12, 2021. Retrieved November 15, 2022 – via Archives of Ontario.
  27. ^ "July opening seen for bypass at Orangeville". The Sun Times. May 6, 1971. Retrieved November 13, 2022 – via Newspapers.com. Please use the correct URL-access parameter in the citation template.
  28. ^ "1968 – Amalgamation to form the Town of Mississauga". mississauga.ca. Retrieved December 6, 2022.
  29. ^ "Appendix No. 17—Schedule of Reversions and Transfers of Sections of the King's Highway and Secondary Highway Systems". Annual Report (Report) (1971 ed.). Department of Highways. December 31, 1971. p. 154.
  30. ^ Highway Transfers List (Report). Ministry of Transportation of Ontario. April 1, 1997. p. 7.
  • Shragge, John; Bagnato, Sharon (1984). From Footpaths to Freeways. Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications, Historical Committee. ISBN 0-7743-9388-2.

External links