Interstate 110 and State Route 110 (California)

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Interstate 110 and State Route 110

I-110 highlighted in red; SR 110 in purple
Route information
Auxiliary route of I-10
Maintained by Caltrans
Length31.819 mi[1] (51.208 km)
California Scenic State.svg Arroyo Seco Parkway
RestrictionsNo trucks over 3 tons north of US 101
Major junctions
South end SR 47 in San Pedro, Los Angeles
Major intersections
North endGlenarm Street in Pasadena
CountryUnited States
CountiesLos Angeles
Highway system
SR 109 SR 111

Route 110, consisting of State Route 110 (SR 110) and Interstate 110 (I-110), is a state and auxiliary Interstate Highway in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the US state of California. The entire route connects San Pedro and the Port of Los Angeles with Downtown Los Angeles and Pasadena. The southern segment from San Pedro to I-10 in downtown Los Angeles is signed as I-110, while the northern segment to Pasadena is signed as SR 110. The entire length of I-110, as well as SR 110 south of the Four Level Interchange with US Route 101 (US 101), is the Harbor Freeway,[2] and SR 110 north from US 101 to Pasadena is the historic Arroyo Seco Parkway, the first freeway in the western United States.[3]

Route description

Entering Interstate 110 in Harbor Gateway, Los Angeles
The Harbor Freeway is often heavily congested at rush hour.
Entrance to the Harbor Freeway in Downtown Los Angeles
The Harbor Freeway southbound entering "The Slot" after emerging from the "4-level"

Route 110 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System,[4] and is part of the National Highway System,[5] a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy, defense, and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration.[6]

Harbor Freeway

The Harbor Freeway, signed as I-110, begins at Gaffey Street in San Pedro, where it then travels mostly due north to the Santa Monica Freeway (I-10) at a point south of downtown Los Angeles, where it becomes signed as SR 110. I-110 is primarily within the city limits of Los Angeles, running right along the South Los Angeles region and the Harbor Gateway, a two-mile (3.2 km) wide north–south corridor that was annexed by the city of Los Angeles specifically to connect San Pedro, Wilmington, and the Port of Los Angeles with the rest the city.

North of I-10, the freeway continues as SR 110 through Downtown Los Angeles to its junction with US 101 at the Four Level Interchange.

The Harbor Freeway, along with the Long Beach Freeway (I-710), are the principal means for freight from the Port of Los Angeles to railyards and warehouses further inland. Its interchange with the Santa Monica Freeway is notoriously busy and congested, and the portions bordering Bunker Hill in northwest Downtown Los Angeles are choked with traffic at peak travel times.


Notable landmarks and attractions near the Harbor Freeway include the Los Angeles Harbor College, California State University, Dominguez Hills, Watts Towers, Exposition Park (including the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the BMO Stadium and the Lucas Museum of Narrative Art), the University of Southern California, Arena, L.A. Live, Los Angeles Convention Center, the skyline of Downtown Los Angeles; and Chinatown.

The Harbor Freeway is noted for its elaborate high-occupancy toll lane feature, with the HOT lanes elevated above the rest of traffic in many areas, constructed in 1994 by C.C. Myers, Inc. as HOV lanes and converted to HOT lanes in 2012. Of particular note is the Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange, which contains the most elaborate network of direct HOV/HOT connectors in Los Angeles County. It includes a 7-story ramp that connects the Century Freeway's HOV lanes to the Harbor Freeway's northbound HOT lanes and offers splendid views of the entire Los Angeles Basin and the San Gabriel Mountains. The interchange with SR 91 (formally known as the Edmond J. Russ Interchange) is also fairly large.

Arroyo Seco Parkway

SR 110 continues north as the Arroyo Seco Parkway from US 101 to Pasadena. From downtown, it passes through Elysian Park, where the northbound lanes pass through the four Figueroa Street Tunnels and the higher southbound lanes pass through a cut and over low areas on bridges. Then after crossing the Los Angeles River and the Golden State Freeway (I-5), the parkway runs alongside the Arroyo Seco seasonal river towards Pasadena.

Harbor Transitway

The Harbor Transitway is a grade-separated, shared-use express bus and high-occupancy toll (HOT) corridor, running in the median of I-110, between SR 91 (Gardena Freeway) and Adams Boulevard in the south side of Downtown Los Angeles. Southbound buses exit the HOT lanes at dedicated ramps connecting to the Harbor Gateway Transit Center. Each vehicle using the HOT lanes is required to carry a FasTrak Flex transponder, with its switch set to indicate the number of the vehicle's occupants (1, 2, or 3 or more), regardless of whether they qualify for free.[7]


State Route 11

LocationSan Pedro - Pasadena
Carpool lanes on the upper deck of the Harbor Freeway, south of Adams Boulevard
I-10 under construction (Near SR 11), c. 1960
Aerial view from the north of the Harbor Freeway (I-110) and its Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange with the Century Freeway (I-105), on approach to Los Angeles International Airport. The Palos Verdes Peninsula and Santa Catalina Island are visible in the distance.

In the 1924 Major Street Traffic Plan for Los Angeles, a widening of Figueroa Street to San Pedro as a good road to the Port of Los Angeles was proposed.[8] Progress was slow,[9] and, in 1933, the state legislature added the entire length to the state highway system as Route 165, an unsigned designation. This route not only extended from San Pedro north to Los Angeles, but continued through the city-built Figueroa Street Tunnels and along the northern extension of Figueroa Street to Eagle Rock, and then followed Linda Vista Avenue (via an overlap on Route 161 (SR 134) over the Colorado Street Bridge) to Route 9 (now I-210) at the Devil's Gate Reservoir.[10][11][12] The entire length of Route 165 became Sign Route 11 in 1934.[13] US Route 6 was also assigned to the portion between SR 1 and Avenue 26 in 1937,[14] and, at about the same time, US 66 was moved from Eagle Rock Boulevard to Figueroa Street, overlapping SR 11 between Sunset Boulevard (US 101) and Colorado Street (SR 134).[15][16]

The state completed the Arroyo Seco Parkway which had been added to the state highway system in 1935 as Route 205, in early 1941, providing a faster route between SR 11 at Avenue 26 and Pasadena.[17] US 66 was moved to the new route, while SR 11 remained on Figueroa Street and Linda Vista Avenue, the former also becoming a new US Route 66 Alternate.[18] Construction of a freeway to San Pedro was much slower, despite having been in the earliest plans for an integrated system. Initially, the Harbor Parkway was to split at the merge with the Venice Parkway northeast of the University of Southern California, with the East By-Pass and West By-Pass straddling the Los Angeles Central Business District and rejoining at the split between the Arroyo Seco Parkway and Riverside Parkway south of Dodger Stadium.[19][20][21] The West By-Pass was soon incorporated into the Harbor Parkway,[22] and the first short piece, by then renamed the Harbor Freeway, opened on July 30, 1952, from the Four Level Interchange south to 3rd Street.[23] (The Arroyo Seco Parkway was completed to the Four Level Interchange on September 22, 1953, and renamed the Pasadena Freeway on November 16, 1954.[17])

The Harbor Freeway gradually pushed south, opening to Olympic Boulevard on March 23, 1954,[24] and Washington Boulevard on May 14, 1954.[25] On March 27, 1956, the highway was extended to 42nd Street,[26] and on April 24, 1957, it reached temporary[27] ramps at 88th Place.[28] Further extensions were made to Century Boulevard on July 31, 1958,[29] 124th Street on September 24, 1958,[30] Alondra Boulevard (which the county widened to carry the load) on May 2, 1960,[31] 190th Street on July 15, 1960,[32] Torrance Boulevard on August 28, 1962,[33] and finally Pacific Coast Highway (SR 1) on September 26, 1962.[34] There it connected with a section that had been open since June 19, 1956, from Pacific Coast Highway south to Channel Street.[35] Along with the Vincent Thomas Bridge to Terminal Island, the final piece in San Pedro opened on July 9, 1970, completing the Harbor Freeway to its present length.[36][37][38]

In December 1978, the Harbor Freeway was approved as an Interstate Highway by the FHWA. In 1981, the SR 11 designation was renumbered as I-110 on the Harbor Freeway, and SR 110 on the Pasadena Freeway.[39] The I-110 designation had been previously applied to what is now a spur of I-10 from 1958 to 1968.

Richard Ankrom signage

In 2001, Richard Ankrom, a local artist who got lost trying to get onto I-5 North from northbound I-110 because there was no clear official signage labeling access to I-5 North, solved his frustration by covertly modifying one of the overhead signs on the freeway just before the Four Level Interchange . Using official government sign specifications, Ankrom fabricated two sign pieces, one being an I-5 marker shield and the other with the word "NORTH", and affixed them to the left side of the sign. He performed his modifications in broad daylight, disguised as a Caltrans worker. In that district, Caltrans has three sign crews, each thinking one of the other two crews did the installation. After nine months, at Ankrom's request, the Los Angeles Downtown News broke the story.

Prior to Ankrom's work, the only signage directing motorists to the I-5 North off-ramp came at a quarter-mile (0.4 km) before the exit, thus forcing many to merge across multiple lanes in a very short distance. The signs were inspected by Caltrans to ensure they would not fall off onto the road below. Ankrom was never charged, despite statements from officials that his actions were illegal. Ankrom referred to his sign project as "Guerilla Public Service".[40]

Caltrans later added an additional "5 North" sign over the left northbound lane at the entrance to the Figueroa Street Tunnels, as well as new electric signage, which will note when an additional lane is available for those wishing to transition to northbound I-5 (converting the current single lane transition to dual lanes).

In 2009, Caltrans replaced all signage along this segment with newer, more reflective versions. These new signs include Ankrom's original improvements.[41][42]


Despite the increased traffic in Los Angeles, including trucks shipping products from the Port of Los Angeles in San Pedro, there are no plans to upgrade the rest of I-110 from I-10 to Pasadena to Interstate standards. Instead, Caltrans has pushed for a protected status alternative to preserve the Arroyo Seco Parkway as a historic landmark. The state legislature designated the original section, north of the Figueroa Street Viaduct, as a "California Historic Parkway" (part of the State Scenic Highway System reserved for freeways built before 1945) in 1993;[43] the only other highway so designated is the Cabrillo Freeway (SR 163) in San Diego. The American Society of Civil Engineers named it a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 1999,[44] and it became a National Scenic Byway in 2002.[45]

Exit list

The entire route is in Los Angeles County.

San Pedro0.931.50Gaffey Street – San PedroSouthern terminus of I-110/Harbor Freeway[49]
1A SR 47 (Vincent Thomas Bridge) – Terminal Island, Long BeachSR 47 exit 1B
1.231.981BChannel Street / Pacific AvenueSouthbound entrance goes directly to SR 47 north
2.774.463AHarry Bridges BoulevardReconstructed in 2016 from the formerly signed C Street interchange[50]
3.265.253BAnaheim Street
4.066.534 SR 1 (Pacific Coast Highway) – Torrance, Beach Cities
West CarsonCarson line5.458.775Sepulveda Boulevard
6.5210.497A223rd StreetNorthbound access is via exit 7
7.0211.307BCarson StreetSigned as exit 7 northbound
7.7412.468Torrance Boulevard
CarsonLos Angeles line8.78–
9 I-405 (San Diego Freeway) / 190th Street – Santa Monica, Long Beach190th Street is not signed northbound; I-405 is former SR 7; I-405 exit 37 northbound, 37A southbound
Los Angeles9.8715.8810 SR 91 (Gardena Freeway) – Beach Cities, RiversideSigned as exits 10A (east) and 10B (west) northbound; SR 91 exit 6
I-110 Express LanesSouthern end of Express Lanes on mainline I-110
Harbor Gateway Transit CenterExpress Lanes access only; southbound exit and northbound entrance
Alondra BoulevardFormer northbound exit only; removed in 1987 during construction of the Redondo Beach Boulevard interchange.[51]
11.2418.0911Redondo Beach Boulevard
11.8919.1412Rosecrans Avenue
12.9020.7613El Segundo Boulevard
13.8222.2414A I-105 (Glenn Anderson Freeway) – Norwalk, LAX AirportJudge Harry Pregerson Interchange; signed as exits 14A (east) and 14B (west) northbound; I-105 exit 7B

I-105 east
Express Lanes access only; southbound exit and northbound entrance
13.9722.4814BImperial Highway

I-105 west – LAX Airport
Express Lanes access only; southbound exit and northbound entrance
14.9724.0915Century BoulevardNo southbound entrance
15.9825.7216Manchester AvenueFormer SR 42
16.9827.3317Florence Avenue
17.5128.1818AGage Avenue
17.9828.9418BSlauson Avenue
18.5029.7719A51st StreetSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
19.0030.5819BVernon AvenueSigned as exit 19 northbound
19.5031.3820AMartin Luther King Jr. Boulevard – Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Exposition Park, Banc of California StadiumFormerly Santa Barbara Avenue[52]
39th Street – ColiseumExpress Lanes access only; northbound exit and southbound entrance
20.0032.1920B37th Street / Exposition Boulevard
I-110 Express LanesNorthern end of Express Lanes on mainline I-110
Adams Boulevard / Figueroa StreetExpress Lanes access only; northbound exit and southbound entrance
20.7133.3320CAdams Boulevard
21.4434.5021 I-10 (Santa Monica Freeway) / Washington Boulevard – Santa Monica, San BernardinoDosan Ahn Chang Ho Memorial Interchange; northern terminus of I-110; southern terminus of SR 110; no northbound exit to Washington Boulevard; I-10 exits 13A-B
22APico Boulevard / Olympic Boulevard – Downtown Los AngelesNorthbound access is part of exit 21
22.3635.9822BJames M. Wood Boulevard / 9th Street / 8th StreetSigned as exit 22 northbound; James M. Wood not signed southbound, 8th Street not signed northbound
22.8336.7423A6th Street / Wilshire Boulevard
23.0437.0823B4th Street
23C3rd Street

US 101 (Santa Ana Freeway, Hollywood Freeway) to I-5 south (Santa Ana Freeway) / I-10 east (San Bernardino Freeway) / SR 60 east (Pomona Freeway) – Hollywood, Ventura, Santa Ana, San Bernardino, Pomona
Four Level Interchange; northern end of Harbor Freeway; southern end of Arroyo Seco Parkway; US 101 exit 3 northbound, 3B southbound
23.9638.5624BSunset BoulevardSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
24.5539.5124CHill Street – Chinatown, Civic CenterNo southbound entrance; signed as exit 24B northbound; left exit southbound
24.7339.8024DStadium Way – Dodger StadiumSigned as exit 24B northbound
24.9040.07Figueroa Street Tunnel No. 1; northbound only
25.0440.3025Solano Avenue / Academy Road
Figueroa Street Tunnels No. 2-4; northbound only
I-5 north (Golden State Freeway) – Sacramento
Northbound left exit and southbound entrance; I-5 exit 137B southbound
25.7841.4926BFigueroa StreetNorthbound left exit and southbound entrance; former SR 159
25.9141.7026AAvenue 26Southbound exit and northbound entrance; former SR 163
26.1242.0426B I-5 (Golden State Freeway) – Santa AnaSouthbound exit and northbound entrance; I-5 exit 137B northbound, 137A southbound
27.1243.6527Avenue 43
28.0545.1428AAvenue 52
28.3845.6728BVia Marisol
28.7646.2829Avenue 60
29.2847.1230AMarmion Way / Avenue 64Northbound exit and southbound entrance
29.5047.4830York BoulevardSouthbound exit and entrance
30.1048.4430BBridewell StreetNorthbound exit only
South Pasadena30.5949.2331AOrange Grove Avenue
South PasadenaPasadena line31.1750.1631BFair Oaks AvenueNo northbound entrance
Pasadena31.9151.35 Glenarm Street – Light RailAt-grade intersection; northern terminus of SR 110/Arroyo Seco Parkway[49]
Arroyo Parkway – Light Rail, Rose Bowl, Huntington LibraryContinuation beyond Glenarm Street
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See also


  1. ^ a b California Department of Transportation. "State Truck Route List". Sacramento: California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (XLS file) on June 30, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  2. ^ 2007 Named Freeways, Highways, Structures and Other Appurtenances in California (PDF). Caltrans. p. 71. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 14, 2012. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
  3. ^ Ryan, Colin (April 9, 2010). "America's First Freeway: The Arroyo Seco Parkway, aka, the 110". Truck Trend. El Segundo, California: Extreme Venturs, LLC. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
    "The History of the Arroyo Seco Parkway". Departures. KCET. October 24, 2011. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
    Kevin Break (2015). Bridges of Downtown Los Angeles. Arcadia Publishing. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-4671-3353-1.
    Johnson, Davey G. (June 29, 2006). "America's First Freeway: The 110". Jalopnik. Gizmodo Media. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
    National Park Service's Heritage Education Services. "Arroyo Seco Parkway". Route 66. United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
    Sproul, Suzanne (August 28, 2017). "Arroyo Seco Parkway, California's first freeway, celebrates 75 years". Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved April 10, 2018. The Arroyo Seco Parkway, once called the Pasadena Freeway (110 Freeway) before the name was changed back in 2010, is considered by many to be the first freeway in the state and in the nation.
    Rick Thomas (2008). The Arroyo Seco. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-5608-6.
  4. ^ "Article 2 of Chapter 2 of Division 1". California Streets and Highways Code. Sacramento: California Office of Legislative Counsel. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  5. ^ Federal Highway Administration (March 25, 2015). National Highway System: Los Angeles, CA (PDF) (Map). Scale not given. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  6. ^ Natzke, Stefan; Neathery, Mike & Adderly, Kevin (June 20, 2012). "What is the National Highway System?". National Highway System. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
  7. ^ "Using Metro ExpressLanes". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved August 14, 2022.
  8. ^ Los Angeles Times, City Moves in Figueroa Plan, September 29, 1926, p. 13
  9. ^ Los Angeles Times, Haste Asked on Figueroa, March 2, 1936, p. A8
  10. ^ California State Assembly. An act to amend sections 2, 3 and 5 and to add two sections to be numbered 6 and 7 to an act entitled 'An act to provide for the acquisition of rights of way for and the construction, maintenance... Fiftieth Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 767, p. 2040.: "San Pedro to State Highway Route 9 near La Canada via Figueroa Street."
  11. ^ California State Assembly. An act to establish a Streets and Highways Code, thereby consolidating and revising the law relating to public ways and all appurtenances thereto, and to repeal certain acts and parts of acts specified herein. Fifty-first Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 29, p. 285.: "Route 165 is from San Pedro to Route 9 near La Canada via Figueroa Street."
  12. ^ California State Assembly. An act...relating to State highways. Fifty-first Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 274, pp. 959, 285.: "Route 165 is from San Pedro to Route 9 near La Canada via Figueroa Street and Linda Vista Avenue."
  13. ^ Dennis, T.H. (August 1934). "State Routes Will Be Numbered and Marked with Distinctive Bear Signs". California Highways and Public Works. 11 (8): 20–21, 32. ISSN 0008-1159 – via
  14. ^ Richard F. Weingroff, U.S. 6: The Grand Army of the Republic Highway
  15. ^ H.M. Gousha Company, Los Angeles and Vicinity, 1935
  16. ^ H.M. Gousha Company, Los Angeles and Vicinity, 1939
  17. ^ a b Historic American Engineering Record (J. Philip Gruen and Portia Lee), Arroyo Seco Parkway (HAER No. CA-265) written historical and descriptive data, August 1999, pp. 34, 57, 65, 67 Archived October 31, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Correspondence between the Division of Highways and American Association of State Highway Officials, transcribed at California Highways: State Route 66
  19. ^ Automobile Club of Southern California, map from Traffic Survey, Los Angeles Metropolitan Area, 1937, reproduced in Janet L. Abu-Lughod, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles: America's Global Cities, 1999, p. 256
  20. ^ Transportation Engineering Board, map from A Transit Program for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Region, 1939, reproduced in Gerrylynn K. Roberts, Philip Steadman, American Cities and Technology: Wilderness to Wired City, 1999, p. 79
  21. ^ Andrew Hamilton, New York Times, Los Angeles Roads Plan, February 25, 1940, p. 128
  22. ^ Los Angeles County Regional Planning District, Master Plan of Metropolitan Los Angeles Freeways, adopted August 6, 1947
  23. ^ Los Angeles Times, Official Ceremonies Open First Harbor Freeway Link, July 31, 1952, p. A1
  24. ^ Los Angeles Times, New Harbor Freeway Link to Open Today, March 23, 1954
  25. ^ Los Angeles Times, New Harbor Freeway Section to Open Today, May 14, 1954
  26. ^ Los Angeles Times, Brief Ceremonies Open Harbor Freeway Section, March 28, 1956, p. 2
  27. ^ Van Nuys News, Harbor Freeway Section Opened, August 5, 1958
  28. ^ Los Angeles Times, Ribbon Cut for New Four-Mile Extension to Harbor Freeway, April 25, 1957
  29. ^ Los Angeles Times, New Harbor Freeway Link Due Thursday, July 28, 1958, p. 5
  30. ^ Los Angeles Times, Harbor Freeway Sector Opens With Ceremony, September 25, 1958, p. B1
  31. ^ Los Angeles Times, Alondra Blvd. Readied for Freeway Exit Load, May 1, 1960, p. CS1
  32. ^ Los Angeles Times, Two-Mile Harbor Freeway Section Will Open Today, July 15, 1960
  33. ^ Los Angeles Times, Harbor Freeway Link to Be Opened Today, August 28, 1962, p. A1
  34. ^ Los Angeles Times, Final Harbor Freeway Link to Be Opened, September 24, 1962, p. 25
  35. ^ Van Nuys News, Harbor Freeway Two-Mile Sector Will Open Today, June 19, 1956
  36. ^ Lee Bastajian, Los Angeles Times, Vincent Thomas Bridge Link Scheduled to Open in July, May 31, 1970, p. CS1
  37. ^ Long Beach Independent, Dedication Set on Freeway Link to Bridge, July 8, 1970
  38. ^ Valley News (Van Nuys), Harbor Freeway Extension to Be Dedicated Today, July 9, 1970
  39. ^ "California Highways ( Routes 105 through 112". Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  40. ^ Stephens, Craig (December 30, 2009). "RICHARD ANKROM's Freeway Art: Caltrans Buys Into the Prank". LA Weekly. Archived from the original on September 23, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
  41. ^ "freeway signs". Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  42. ^ "guerrilla public service". Retrieved 2022-11-13.
  43. ^ California State Assembly. An act to add Sections 280, 281, 282, and 283 to the Streets and Highways Code, relating to highways. 1993–1994 Session of the Legislature. Statutes of California. State of California. Ch. 179.
  44. ^ HAER, p. 4
  45. ^ U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Transportation Secretary Mineta Names 36 New National Scenic Byways, All-American Roads, June 13, 2002
  46. ^ California Department of Transportation (July 2007). "Log of Bridges on State Highways". Sacramento: California Department of Transportation.
  47. ^ California Department of Transportation, All Traffic Volumes on CSHS Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, 2006
  48. ^ California Department of Transportation, California Numbered Exit Uniform System, I-110, accessed January 2008
  49. ^ a b "2014 Named Freeways, Highways, Structures and Other Appurtenances in California" (PDF). California Department of Transportation. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  50. ^ "Reconfigured 110 Freeway ramp in Wilmington reopens". Daily Breeze. 2016-06-20. Retrieved 2023-04-08.
  51. ^ Goodman, Adrianne (1989-02-03). "Saving a Street : Gardena's New Beautification Project Aims to Spruce Up Once-Thriving Boulevard". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2023-04-08.
  52. ^ "LA's MLK Boulevard got its name because of another King". 89.3 KPCC. 2018-01-15. Retrieved 2023-04-08.

External links