Cross Bronx Expressway

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Cross Bronx Expressway

Map of the Bronx in New York City with Cross Bronx Expressway highlighted in red
Route information
Length6.5 mi[2][3] (10.5 km)
Existed1955[1]–present
Component
highways
I-95 from Morris Heights to Throggs Neck
US 1 from Morris Heights to Tremont
I-295 in Throggs Neck
Major junctions
West end I-95 / US 1 in Morris Heights
Major intersections I-87 in Morris Heights
US 1 in Tremont
Bronx River Parkway in Soundview
I-95 / I-278 / I-295 / I-678 in Throggs Neck
East end I-295 in Throggs Neck
Location
CountryUnited States
StateNew York
Highway system

The Cross Bronx Expressway is a major freeway in the New York City borough of the Bronx. It is mainly designated as part of Interstate 95 (I-95), but also includes portions of I-295 and U.S. Route 1 (US 1). The Cross Bronx begins at the Alexander Hamilton Bridge over the Harlem River, where the Trans-Manhattan Expressway continues west across Upper Manhattan to the George Washington Bridge. While I-95 leaves at the Bruckner Interchange in Throgs Neck, following the Bruckner Expressway and New England Thruway to Connecticut, the Cross Bronx Expressway continues east, carrying I-295 to the merge with the Throgs Neck Expressway near the Throgs Neck Bridge. Though the road goes primarily northwest-to-southeast, the nominal directions of all route numbers west of the Bruckner Interchange are aligned with the northbound route number going southeast, and the southbound route number going northwest.

The Cross Bronx Expressway was conceived by Robert Moses and built between 1948 and 1972. It was the first highway built through a crowded urban environment in the United States; the most expensive mile of road ever built to that point is part of the Cross Bronx, costing $40 million (equivalent to $436,968,944 in 2022). At one point during construction, Moses' crews had to support the Grand Concourse (a major surface thoroughfare), a subway line[a] and several elevated train lines[b] while the expressway was laboriously pushed through. The highway experiences severe traffic problems, and its construction has been blamed for negatively affecting a number of low-income neighborhoods in the South Bronx.[4]

Route description

File:Cross Bronx Expressway time-lapse.webm

The Cross Bronx Expressway begins at the eastern end of the Alexander Hamilton Bridge as a continuation of the Trans-Manhattan Expressway and officially designated as both I-95 and US 1. Immediately after coming off the bridge, there is an interchange with the Major Deegan Expressway (I-87) for Yankee Stadium and points upstate. The highway soon intersects with Webster Avenue at a partial interchange allowing eastbound vehicles to exit and westbound ones to enter. Northbound US 1 leaves the Cross Bronx Expressway at this exit. About 1.5 miles (2.4 km) later, the expressway has a pair of closely spaced interchanges for New York State Route 895 (NY 895, Sheridan Boulevard) and the Bronx River Parkway. The exit for Sheridan Boulevard is an incomplete interchange and allows access from northbound and to southbound I-95 only.[3]

The Cross Bronx Expressway reaches the Bruckner Interchange 2 miles (3.2 km) later. The service road is called East 177th Street between the Bronx River Parkway and the Bruckner Interchange.[5] Going eastbound (I-95 northbound), the interchange allows access to southbound I-678, northbound I-95 (Bruckner Expressway) and southbound I-295. I-95 leaves the Cross Bronx Expressway here and continues north along the Bruckner Expressway. The Cross Bronx Expressway continues east of the interchange as I-295, which begins here.[3] The Cross Bronx ends 1.5 miles (2.4 km) later at the Throgs Neck Expressway, where traffic from I-695 merges on toward the Throgs Neck Bridge.[6]

History

Planning

Eastward from Westchester Avenue

The 1929 Report on Highway Traffic Conditions and Proposed Traffic Relief Measures for the City of New York was the first citywide traffic study, classifying a number of projects that had been proposed by local interests. A "Cross-Bronx Route" along 161st and 163rd Streets was one of two proposed facilities, along with the "Nassau Boulevard" (which became the Long Island Expressway), picked by borough engineers as examples of important projects.[7] Although this routing was south of the present Cross Bronx Expressway, the report did suggest a "New Cross-Bronx Artery" near the present expressway that would link the Washington Bridge with the Clason Point Ferry to Queens. Though it would not be built to freeway standards, it would be 60 feet (18 m) wide with grade separations "where considered necessary and desirable." The George Washington Bridge, then under construction, was cited among reasons to build the highway which would help connect New Jersey to Long Island via the bridges and ferry.[8]

In 1936, the Regional Plan Association (RPA) proposed a highway that would connect the Bronx to New England and points north.[9] In late 1940, the New York City Planning Commission adopted a plan for a network of highways. Except for the Bronx and Pelham Parkway, which lay to the north, no cross-Bronx highway had been built up to this point.[10] The report stated that the "Bronx Crosstown Highway", which would now connect on the east end to the Bronx–Whitestone Bridge (which had replaced the Clason Point Ferry), was "an essential part of a desirable highway pattern", taking traffic from the George Washington Bridge to Long Island and New England. The cost was estimated at $17 million, higher than most improvements because of the "topographical conditions, high land values, and heavily built-up areas".[11]

Construction

The Expressway traverses beneath Walton Avenue and Grand Concourse.

In the 1940s, city planner Robert Moses proposed the construction of a system of highways that would traverse the New York City area.[12] The plan was to cost $800 million (equivalent to $13.1 billion in 2022[13]), and, in February 1945, the city agreed to pay $60 million (equivalent to $777 million in 2022[13]) of that cost.[14] That November, the city, state, and federal governments agreed to fund several new highways in New York City. Among these was the Cross Bronx Expressway, which was to cost $38.67 million.[15] The expressway was to continue onto the 181st Street Bridge at its western end, connecting with the 178th–179th Street Tunnels and the George Washington Bridge via a set of ramps.[16] At its eastern end, the expressway would connect with the Hutchinson River Parkway and New England Thruway at the Bruckner Interchange.[17]

The New York City Board of Estimate approved a contract in February 1946, allowing the Tenant Relocation Bureau to relocate 540 families who lived on the expressway's right-of-way.[18] The New York City Council adopted a resolution the next month, asking the Board of Estimate to delay the relocations,[19] which were scheduled to start that June.[20] City officials said that only 55 families would be relocated in 1946 and that all existing residents would be relocated before construction started.[21][22] By late 1947, the city and state governments were relocating residents in the expressway's path.[23] The city and state started soliciting bids for construction contracts that December.[23][24] Although the city and state planned to demolish 164 structures on the expressway's right-of-way, they were reluctant to raze all of the structures immediately because of a housing shortage in New York City.[25]

Construction of the expressway began in 1948.[26][27] A 112-foot open cut was excavated, accommodating six 12-foot-wide (3.7 m) traffic lanes and four 10-foot-wide (3.0 m) cobblestone shoulders. This project proved to be one of the most difficult expressway projects at the time; construction required blasting through ridges, crossing valleys and redirecting small rivers. In doing so, minimal disruption to the apartment buildings that topped the ridges in the area of Grand Concourse was a priority.[28] Moreover, the expressway had to cross 113 streets, seven expressways and parkways (some of which were under construction), as well as numerous subway and train lines.[28][29] The highway also passed by hundreds of utility, water and sewer lines, none of which could be interrupted.[28][30] The highway was to contain 54 bridges and three tunnels when it was completed.[30] By early 1949, the project's budget had increased to $53 million,[31] in part because of material shortages.[25][31]

Eastern section

By early 1949, the first section of the expressway, between Olmstead Avenue and Westchester Creek, was not planned to be completed until 1951.[32] The Gull Construction Company was contracted to build this segment in May 1949,[33] and Rusciano & Sons was hired the same month to build the footings for six bridges along the expressway.[34] In addition, Frederick H. Zurmuhlen was supervising the construction of a bridge over Westchester Creek at a cost of $5,287,000;[35] the ten-lane bridge was to supplement a surface-level span.[36] Engineering firms Andrews & Clark and Hardesty & Hanover were hired to supervise the project later in 1949.[37] A short segment near Bruckner Boulevard opened in 1950 and was the first part of the expressway to be completed.[38]

The state government hired the J. Kaufman Demolition Company in 1951 to raze structures on the right-of-way east of the Bronx River Parkway.[39] By early 1953, part of the highway east of the Bronx River Parkway was also being constructed.[17] The construction of this section required excavating underneath the Parkchester station of the New York City Subway's Pelham Line.[38] In addition, the Bronx River had to be relocated several hundred feet in the vicinity of the Bronx River Parkway interchange.[29][30] The section from the Bronx River Parkway to the Bruckner Interchange opened on November 5, 1955, at the same time as parts of the Queens Midtown and Major Deegan expressways. The first portion of the Cross Bronx Expressway had cost $34.6 million and was about 2 miles (3.2 km) long.[1][40] The segment was six lanes wide;[41] its original western end was at Rosedale Avenue, where ramps connected to the northbound Bronx River Parkway.[42] A one-mile (1.5 km) western extension from the Bronx River Parkway to a temporary interchange at Longfellow Avenue, near Boston Road, opened on April 23, 1956.[43]

When the Throgs Neck Bridge to Queens opened on January 11, 1961,[44][45] the Cross Bronx was extended east as one of the bridge's two northern approaches, the other being the Throgs Neck Expressway (later I-695). Both extensions were part of the Interstate Highway System.[46] The Cross Bronx Expressway Extension and the Clearview Expressway were originally designated as part of I-78,[47][48][49] which was to continue through Queens, Brooklyn, and Manhattan to the Holland Tunnel.[50][51][52] Ultimately, most of I-78 was canceled in 1971.[48][53][54] In anticipation of this change, the Cross Bronx Expressway Extension and the Clearview Expressway were renumbered I-295 on January 1, 1970.[55]

Central section

The section of the Cross Bronx Expressway between Anthony and Longfellow Avenues was highly controversial.[56] In early 1953, Bronx borough president James J. Lyons proposed relocating the Cross Bronx Expressway near Crotona Park in order to preserve 1,000 houses in the expressway's right-of-way. Under Lyons's plan, the highway would curve slightly southward and run along the northern edge of Crotona Park, creating a "kink" in the routing.[57][58] Moses, who called Lyons's proposal "unreasonable", threatened to resign from his position as city construction coordinator if Lyons's alternative was approved.[59][60] Moses also threatened to cancel federal funding for the entire project.[61] After an acrimonious public hearing in April 1953, the Board of Estimate could not agree on whether to relocate the expressway along Crotona Park.[62] State officials supported Moses's original plan, saying that the Crotona Park alternative would create "curves and reverse curves of sub-standard radius".[56] Ultimately, the Board of Estimate approved Moses's original alignment that May.[63][64]

By 1954, the project's cost had increased to $86 million, but land for the western section of the expressway had not even been purchased, leading The New York Times to describe the existing sections as a "road to nowhere".[38] Although the Cross Bronx Expressway had been one of the first highways planned in New York City, it was estimated that the expressway would be the last project to be completed.[65] In November 1954, the Board of Estimate voted unanimously to buy land for the section between Anthony and Longfellow Avenues, despite continued opposition from Bronx residents. At the time, officials estimated that the central section of the expressway would cost $21 million.[66][67] Of this cost, $8 million would be spent on acquiring the land and relocating 1,462 families.[67] By 1956, the Times reported that the center section was not expected to be completed for several years because of the expense of relocating tenants.[68]

Construction of the section between exits 3 and 2B began in early 1958, at which point the project's total cost had increased to $101 million. The most expensive part of the project was the 0.6-mile (0.97 km) segment between exits 2B and 2A in Tremont, Bronx, which was planned to cost $11.788 million; it included a 300-foot-long (91 m) tunnel under the Grand Concourse and the underground Concourse Line, as well as an open cut that passed under five avenues.[69] On April 27, 1960, another 1.2-mile (2 km) piece opened, taking the road west to Webster Avenue.[70][71] Later that year, the westernmost 0.4 miles (0.64 km) of the expressway was closed to allow the completion of the Tremont section.[72] The 0.6-mile (1 km) Tremont segment from Webster Avenue west to Jerome Avenue opened on February 10, 1961.[73][74] By that time, all construction contracts for the remaining sections of the expressway had been awarded.[74]

Western section

Deegan interchange

The 181st Street Bridge, and the ramps from the bridge to the existing 178th Street Tunnel and a new 179th Street Tunnel in Manhattan, were originally part of the Cross Bronx Expressway.[16] In 1949, workers began widening the 181st Street Bridge, constructing the ramps, and excavating the 179th Street Tunnel.[75][76] The widening was finished by 1950,[77][78] and the tunnel and interchange opened on May 5, 1952.[79][80] Originally, there had not been any plans to construct an interchange with the Major Deegan Expressway, at the highway's western end, because of the area's steep topography and limited space.[81] In December 1952, the city and state reached an agreement to finance the construction of an interchange at that site.[81][82]

Plans for the western end of the expressway were modified substantially[83] after the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey announced in 1957 that it would construct a lower deck on the George Washington Bridge.[84] To accommodate the additional traffic from the George Washington Bridge, the Trans-Manhattan Expressway and Alexander Hamilton Bridge were to be constructed, connecting the George Washington Bridge and the Cross Bronx Expressway.[85][86] The revised plans were announced in 1958. At the time, the Alexander Hamilton Bridge was planned to be completed in 1962, but the interchange with the Major Deegan would not open until two years after that.[83] With the opening of the Alexander Hamilton Bridge in April 1963, the $128 million Cross Bronx was completed, but two major interchanges were still incomplete: the Highbridge Interchange with the Major Deegan Expressway (I-87), and the Bruckner Interchange with the Bruckner Expressway (I-95/I-278), the Hutchinson River Parkway, and the Bronx–Whitestone Bridge (I-678).[87]

Later modifications

The $12.6 million Highbridge Interchange opened in November 1964.[88][89] The $68 million reconstruction of the Bruckner Interchange, allowing Bruckner Expressway traffic to bypass the old traffic circle, opened on January 2, 1972.[90][91] (Cross Bronx traffic passing through to the Throgs Neck Bridge had been able to avoid the circle, but drivers taking the Bruckner in either direction, including those bound for New England, had to exit onto the surface.)[92]

Effects

Urban decay

Congestion

The Cross Bronx Expressway is blamed for worsening the decay of neighborhoods in the South Bronx, such as Tremont. In Robert Caro's The Power Broker, the author argues that Moses intentionally directed the expressway through this neighborhood, even though there was a more viable option only one block south.[93] The expressway's construction displaced many residents, who generally were not relocated to adequate housing.[94] The New York Times reported in 2022 that the areas near the Cross Bronx Expressway were among New York City's poorest neighborhoods; these areas contained 220,000 residents, most of which were ethnic minorities.[95]

Many of the neighborhoods it runs through have been continually poor since its construction, partly due to the lowered property value caused by the expressway.[95] This is partially responsible for the public opposition to many other planned expressways in New York City that were later cancelled – in particular, the Lower Manhattan Expressway,[96] and may have provided impetus to Jane Jacobs, an American expatriate, in her opposition to the Scarborough Expressway in Toronto. Architect Ronald Shiffman argues that the Cross Bronx Expressway "ripped through the heart of the Bronx, creating what was a wall between what eventually was known as the Northern and Southern part of the Bronx."[97]

Health issues

The Cross Bronx Expressway accounts for a large proportion of the Bronx's roadway pollution.[94][98] Bronx residents are more likely to have asthma than residents of other boroughs, and a large portion of those are children. Because things like dust, pollution, and other allergens serve as factors for developing asthma, children of color living in low-income areas in the Bronx are at risk of suffering from asthma exacerbation. Asthma rates in the Bronx are three times higher than the national average.[94] In the Morris Heights neighborhood of the West Bronx, where the Cross Bronx and Major Deegan Expressways intersect, air-pollution rates are also generally higher than in the rest of the borough.[98] To decrease emissions from the Cross Bronx Expressway, community activists proposed constructing a freeway lid in the early 2020s.[99][100]

Congestion

The expressway is one of the main routes for shipping and transportation through New York City due to its connections with New Jersey via the George Washington Bridge, Long Island via the Throgs Neck and Whitestone Bridges, Upstate New York via I-87 northbound and the Bronx River Parkway, Manhattan via I-87 southbound to the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge or the Trans-Manhattan Expressway (extension of the Cross Bronx Expressway westward) and the Henry Hudson Parkway, and New England via the New England Thruway (I-95) and the Hutchinson River Parkway. As such, the expressway is also known for its extreme traffic problems; in 2000, nearly 180,000 vehicles used the Cross Bronx's six lanes every day.[101] It is not uncommon for truckers to use the Cross-Westchester Expressway to the New York State Thruway and the Major Deegan Expressway to get around this stretch of I-95. Proposals have been made to make dedicated truck lanes, add express bus service, and build decking on the open trenches to allow for parks, although to no avail.[102]

In both 2008 and 2007, Inrix cited the Cross Bronx Expressway's westbound exit 4B (Bronx River Parkway) as being the worst intersection in the United States. In 2008, the expressway's exits included three out of the top four on the list, and four of the top five in 2007.[29][103] Congestion is often exacerbated by the fact that large portions of the Cross Bronx Expressway does not meet modern Interstate standards,[104] as well as the relative lack of arterial roads between the West Bronx and East Bronx.[105] Large portions of the expressway do not have shoulders, so even minor breakdowns could cause congestion.[104][105] A 2002 study by the New York State Department of Transportation found that the expressway also had short entrance and exit ramps, poor sightlines, and dim lighting.[101][105] Other issues were caused by the fact that the expressway's service roads were discontinuous, forcing traffic onto the expressway or local streets.[105]

In 2022, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority released an environmental impact statement, which detailed the possible impacts of a planned congestion pricing zone in New York City. The study found that, if the zone were implemented, up to 700 additional trucks per day would use the Cross Bronx Expressway to avoid the congestion pricing zone.[95][106]

Exit list

Two separate exit numbering systems are used on the Cross Bronx Expressway. West of the Bruckner Interchange, the expressway uses I-95's mileage-based exit numbers, which increase from west to east. East of the Bruckner Interchange, the expressway uses I-295's sequential exit numbers, which increase from east to west. The entire route is in the New York City borough of the Bronx

Locationmi[2][3][107]kmExitDestinationsNotes
Harlem River0.000.00

I-95 south / US 1 south (Trans-Manhattan Expressway) – George Washington Bridge, Newark, NJ
Continuation into Manhattan
Alexander Hamilton Bridge
Morris Heights0.10–
0.60
0.16–
0.97
1BAmsterdam AvenueSouthbound exit and northbound entrance; shared ramp with exits 1C-D
1C (SB)
3 (NB)
I-87 (Major Deegan Expressway) – Albany, Queens, Yankee StadiumSigned as exits 1C (south) and 1D (north) southbound; exits 7N-S on I-87
0.801.292AJerome Avenue
Tunnel under Jennie Jerome Playground
Tremont1.282.062B
US 1 north (Webster Avenue)
Northern terminus of concurrency with US 1; northbound exit and southbound entrance
1.862.993Third AvenueSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
West Farms2.053.30Tunnel under East 176th Street
2.644.254A
NY 895 south (Sheridan Boulevard) – RFK Bridge
No southbound exit; former I-895
Soundview3.004.834B
Bronx River Parkway north / Rosedale Avenue
Exit 4 on Bronx River Parkway
Parkchester3.70–
4.30
5.95–
6.92
5AWhite Plains Road / Westchester Avenue
3.70–
3.80
5.95–
6.12
Tunnel under Hugh J. Grant Circle
Castle Hill4.006.445BCastle Hill AvenueEastbound exit and westbound entrance
Throggs Neck4.507.246A
I-678 south (Hutchinson River Expressway) – Whitestone Bridge, Queens
Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; exit 19S on I-678
4.707.566B
I-95 north (Bruckner Expressway) – New Haven, CT

I-295 begins
Eastern end of I-95 concurrency; northern terminus of I-295; eastbound exit and westbound entrance
5.10–
5.30
8.21–
8.53
12
I-278 west (Bruckner Expressway) – Manhattan
Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; exit 54 on I-278
5.50–
6.00
8.85–
9.66
11Randall Avenue
6.6010.6210


I-695 north (Throgs Neck Expressway) to I-95 north – New Haven, CT
Northbound exit and southbound entrance; south end of I-695
6.8010.949Harding Avenue / Pennyfield Avenue

I-295 south (Throgs Neck Bridge) – Long Island
Continuation into Queens
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b Ingraham, Joseph C. (1955-11-06). "Harriman Favors 'Yes' on Road Fund; Harriman Pleads for 'Yes' Vote On Bonds as 3 Road Links Open". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  2. ^ a b "2010 Traffic Volume Report for New York State" (PDF). New York State Department of Transportation. July 25, 2011. p. 151. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d Google (January 9, 2016). "Cross Bronx Expressway" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  4. ^ Berman, Marshall. "All That is Solid Melts Into Air." New York: Penguin: 1988
  5. ^ "A Local Law in relation to renaming two thoroughfares and public places in the Borough of the Bronx, East 177th Street, and to amend the official map of the city of New York accordingly.". Act No. 2018-035 of January 11, 2018. Archived June 19, 2021, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ New York City Department of Transportation, Truck Routes Archived September 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, accessed November 2007: shows that the Cross Bronx Expressway Extension ends at the Throgs Neck Expressway, while the Throgs Neck Expressway continues to the Throgs Neck Bridge
  7. ^ "Call Traffic Study City Planning Aid". The New York Times. October 29, 1929. p. 32. Archived from the original on July 22, 2018. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  8. ^ Harland Bartholomew, Report to the Honorable James J. Walker, Mayor, on Highway Traffic Conditions and Proposed Traffic Relief Measures for the City of New York, Day & Zimmermann, 1929, OCLC 35914068
  9. ^ "Regional Program Proposed for Fair; Plan Association Suggests New Water Supply, Highways and Sewage Treatment Plants". The New York Times. 1936-01-15. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  10. ^ New York City area (Map). H.M. Gousha Company. 1941. Archived from the original on January 16, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
  11. ^ "Pattern of Highways for the City as Proposed in Board's Master Plan". The New York Times. November 21, 1940. p. 39. Archived from the original on July 22, 2018. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  12. ^ Moscow, Warren (March 13, 1944). "Highway Network Proposed for City Hits Albany Snag" (PDF). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 18, 2023. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  13. ^ a b Johnston, Louis; Williamson, Samuel H. (2023). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved December 19, 2023. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
  14. ^ "Road Plan Allots 60 Million to City" (PDF). The New York Times. February 20, 1945. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on January 18, 2023. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  15. ^ "$285,000,000 Roads Planned for City; the Folks Back in the Old Country Are Proud of New York City's Mayor-elect". The New York Times. 1945-11-26. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  16. ^ a b "Work Progressing at Western Terminus of Cross-Bronx Expressway". New York Herald Tribune. 8 Apr 1950. p. 9. ISSN 1941-0646. ProQuest 1327401045.
  17. ^ a b Widlicka, Leo (6 Mar 1953). "Bronx Hums With Work on 2 Expressways: Maj. Deegan, Cross-Bronx Routes Will Each Have 6 Lanes, No Stop Lights Two New Super Highways in the Bronx Begin to Take Shape". New York Herald Tribune. p. 19. ISSN 1941-0646. ProQuest 1322297699.
  18. ^ "Tenant Relocation Part of Road Plan; Estimate Board Approves Conditionally Aid to Those WhoseHouses Will Be Razed". The New York Times. 1946-02-01. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  19. ^ "Road Delay Sought to Save 600 Homes". The New York Times. 1946-03-26. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  20. ^ "Legion Unit Scores Moses on Housing; Charges Him With Hundreds of Evictions to Make Way for New Auto Highways". The New York Times. 1946-05-08. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  21. ^ "2 New Expressways to Oust Few Families From Their Homes This Year, Moses Reports". The New York Times. 1946-05-11. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  22. ^ "O'DwyerDenies City's Evictions Bring Hardship: Says N.Y. Is Relocating 305 Families Affected in '46 by Work on Expressways". New York Herald Tribune. 11 May 1946. p. 15. ISSN 1941-0646. ProQuest 1291144287.
  23. ^ a b Freeman, Ira (1947-12-13). "City Pushes Work on Expressways; 8 of 15 Major Road Projects in $200,000,000 Program Already Under Way". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  24. ^ "State to Award $25,000,000 in Road Projects: Record Contract Letting to Include 2,000,000 Job on Bronx River Parkway". New York Herald Tribune. 3 Dec 1947. p. 2. ISSN 1941-0646. ProQuest 1291362023.
  25. ^ a b Sugrue, Francis (26 Jul 1948). "New Highways Mapped to Link Four Boroughs: 6-Lane Roads, Free of Red Lights, Planned; Some Sections Already Begun". New York Herald Tribune. p. 3. ISSN 1941-0646. ProQuest 1327416845.
  26. ^ Sedensky, Matt (2001-10-07). "NEIGHBORHOOD REPORT: BRONX UP CLOSE; Decades Later, Doing the Cross Bronx Expressway Right". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 27, 2015. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  27. ^ Feuer, Alan (2002-09-20). "Hell on Wheels, and Nerves; If Ever There Was a Mean Street, It's the Cross Bronx". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on July 17, 2016. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  28. ^ a b c Caro, Robert (1974). The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-48076-3. OCLC 834874.
  29. ^ a b c Deutsch, Kevin (March 5, 2009). "It's true, Cross-Bronx is worst". The Riverdale Press. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  30. ^ a b c McConnell, David (29 Dec 1958). "Workers Speed Huge Bronx Expressway". New York Herald Tribune. p. 3. ISSN 1941-0646. ProQuest 1338031875.
  31. ^ a b "Expressway Plan of City Cut in Half; Moses Report Shows Effect of Rising Costs on Program Once Put at $429,000,000". The New York Times. 1949-01-10. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  32. ^ "City Working On 37 Arterial Highway Plans: Pari of Over-Alle Expressway Program to Relieve Traffic at Cost of $496.953,531". New York Herald Tribune. 10 Jan 1949. p. 3. ISSN 1941-0646. ProQuest 1326795431.
  33. ^ "Highway Contract Let; Albany Awards Bronx Artery Link at $3,994,757". The New York Times. 1949-05-15. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  34. ^ "Bronx Bridge Work Let: $3,372,919 Expressway Contract Goes to City Company". The New York Times. 1949-05-12. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  35. ^ "Widening to Start on Harlem Bridge; $736,996 Contract Let by State for Washington Span, Link in Cross Bronx Expressway". The New York Times. 1949-06-10. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 31, 2022. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
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